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      Evidence of Latitudinal Migration in Tri-colored Bats, Perimyotis subflavus

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          Abstract

          Background

          Annual movements of tri-colored bats ( Perimyotis subflavus) are poorly understood. While this species has been considered a regional migrant, some evidence suggests that it may undertake annual latitudinal migrations, similar to other long distance North American migratory bat species.

          Methodology/Principal Findings

          We investigated migration in P. subflavus by conducting stable hydrogen isotope analyses of 184 museum specimen fur samples and comparing these results (δD fur) to published interpolated δD values of collection site growing season precipitation (δD precip). Results suggest that the male molt period occurred between June 23 and October 16 and 33% of males collected during the presumed non-molt period were south of their location of fur growth. For the same time period, 16% of females were south of their location of fur growth and in general, had not travelled as far as migratory males. There were strong correlations between δD fur from the presumed molt period and both growing season δD precip (males – r 2 = 0.86; p<0.01; females – r 2 = 0.75; p<0.01), and latitude of collection (males – r 2 = 0.85; p<0.01; females – r 2 = 0.73; p<0.01). Most migrants were collected at the northern (>40°N; males and females) and southern (<35°N; males only) extents of the species' range.

          Conclusions/Significance

          These results indicate a different pattern of migration for this species than previously documented, suggesting that some P. subflavus engage in annual latitudinal migrations and that migratory tendency varies with latitude and between sexes. We suggest that this species' hibernation ecology makes it particularly susceptible to long winters, making migration from the northern extent of the species' range to more southern hibernacula preferable for some individuals. Fur δD values for some of the northern individuals may indicate an increase in the currently accepted northern range of this species. Sex-biased differences in migration may be the result of differences in reproductive pressures.

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          Most cited references98

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          Comparative equilibration and online technique for determination of non-exchangeable hydrogen of keratins for use in animal migration studies.

          Stable hydrogen-isotope ratios (deltaD) of keratin provide a novel means for tracking geographical movements of birds and other species. Here we describe a rapid, low cost, analytical approach to facilitate online continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS) deltaD analyses of keratins (120-160 samples per day) through the use of calibrated keratin working standards and "comparative equilibration" to correct for the effects of moisture on exchangeable hydrogen. It is anticipated that this analytical approach and CF-IRMS will greatly aid in providing cost effective and directly comparable deltaD results on keratins and feathers among various laboratories and researchers involved in animal migration studies.
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            Stable isotopes as one of nature's ecological recorders.

            Analyses of the natural variation in stable isotopes of components of ecological systems have provided new insights into how these systems function across paleoecological to modern timescales and across a wide range of spatial scales. Isotope abundances of the molecules in biological materials and geochemical profiles are viewed as recorders that can be used to reconstruct ecological processes or to trace ecological activities. Here, we review key short-, medium- and long-term recording capacities of stable isotopes that are currently being applied to ecological questions. The melding of advances in genetics, biochemical profiling and spatial analysis with those in isotope analyses and modeling sophistication opens the door to an exciting future in ecological research.
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              SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF MIGRATORY TREE BATS (LASIURUS AND LASIONYCTERIS) IN NORTH AMERICA

              Paul Cryan (2003)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2012
                22 February 2012
                : 7
                : 2
                : e31419
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
                [2 ]Department of Natural History, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
                [3 ]Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
                University of Regina, Canada
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: EEF LPM JLE FJL MBF. Performed the experiments: EEF. Analyzed the data: EEF LPM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: EEF LPM JLE FJL. Wrote the paper: EEF.

                Article
                PONE-D-11-20148
                10.1371/journal.pone.0031419
                3284490
                22384019
                ddde0102-2675-4f76-ad3d-8735fce7ad4d
                Fraser et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                History
                : 11 October 2011
                : 7 January 2012
                Page count
                Pages: 9
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology
                Computational Biology
                Ecology
                Population Biology
                Zoology
                Earth Sciences
                Geochemistry

                Uncategorized
                Uncategorized

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