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      Efficacy of nystatin for the treatment of oral candidiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis


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          To systematically review and assess the efficacy, different treatment protocols (formulation, dosage, and duration), and safety of nystatin for treating oral candidiasis.


          Four electronic databases were searched for trials published in English till July 1, 2015. Randomized controlled trials comparing nystatin with other antifungal therapies or a placebo were included. Clinical and/or mycological cure was the outcome evaluation. A meta-analysis or descriptive study on the efficacy, treatment protocols, and safety of nystatin was conducted.


          The meta-analysis showed that nystatin pastille was significantly superior to placebo in treating denture stomatitis. Nystatin suspension was not superior to fluconazole in treating oral candidiasis in infants, children, or HIV/AIDS patients. The descriptive investigations showed that administration of nystatin suspension and pastilles in combination for 2 weeks might achieve a higher clinical and mycological cure rate, and using the nystatin pastilles alone might have a higher mycological cure rate, when compared with using nystatin suspensions alone. Nystatin pastilles at a dose of 400,000 IU resulted in a significantly higher mycological cure rate than that administrated at a dose of 200,000 IU. Furthermore, treatment with nystatin pastilles for 4 weeks seemed to have better clinical efficacy than treatment for 2 weeks. Descriptive safety assessment showed that poor taste and gastrointestinal adverse reaction are the most common adverse effects of nystatin.


          Nystatin pastille was significantly superior to placebo in treating denture stomatitis, while nystatin suspension was not superior to fluconazole in treating oral candidiasis in infants, children, or HIV/AIDS patients. Indirect evidence from a descriptive study demonstrated that administration of nystatin pastille alone or pastille and suspension in combination is more effective than that of suspension alone; prolonged treatment duration for up to 4 weeks can increase the efficacy of nystatin. More well designed and high quality randomized control studies are needed to confirm these findings.

          Most cited references44

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          Oral candidiasis.

          Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, and extremes of life, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, malignancies, and immunosuppressive conditions. Management involves taking a history, an examination, and appropriate antifungal treatment with a few requiring samples to be taken for laboratory analysis. In certain high risk groups antifungal prophylaxis reduces the incidence and severity of infections. The prognosis is good in the great majority of cases.
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            Clinical and microbiological diagnosis of oral candidiasis

            Introduction: Candidiasis or oral candidiasis is the most frequent mucocutaneous mycosis of the oral cavity. It is produced by the genus Candida, which is found in the oral cavity of 53% of the general population as a common commensal organism. One hundred and fifty species have been isolated in the oral cavity, and 80% of the isolates correspond to Candida albicans, which can colonize the oral cavity alone or in combination with other species. Transformation from commensal organism to pathogen depends on the intervention of different predisposing factors that modify the microenvironment of the oral cavity and favor the appearance of opportunistic infection. The present study offers a literature review on the diagnosis of oral candidiasis, with the purpose of establishing when complementary microbiological techniques for the diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be used, and which techniques are most commonly employed in routine clinical practice in order to establish a definitive diagnosis. Materials and methods: A Medline-PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane search was made covering the last 10 years. Results: The diagnosis of oral candidiasis is fundamentally clinical. Microbiological techniques are used when the clinical diagnosis needs to be confirmed, for establishing a differential diagnosis with other diseases, and in cases characterized by resistance to antifungal drugs. Biopsies in turn are indicated in patients with hyperplastic candidiasis. Staining (10% KOH) and culture (Sabouraud dextrose agar) are the methods most commonly used for diagnosing primary candidiasis. Identification of the individual species of Candida is usually carried out with CHROMagar Candida®. For the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis, and in cases requiring differentiation between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, use is made of immunological and genetic techniques such as ELISA and PCR. Key words:Clinical, oral candidiasis, microbiology.
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              Oral azole drugs as systemic antifungal therapy.

              The oral azole drugs--ketoconazole, fluconazole, and itraconazole--represent a major advance in systemic antifungal therapy. Among the three, fluconazole has the most attractive pharmacologic profile, including the capacity to produce high concentrations of active drug in cerebrospinal fluid and urine. Ketoconazole, the first oral azole to be introduced, is less well tolerated than either fluconazole or itraconazole and is associated with more clinically important toxic effects, including hepatitis and inhibition of steroid hormone synthesis. However, ketoconazole is less expensive than fluconazole and itraconazole--an especially important consideration for patients receiving long-term therapy. All three drugs are effective alternatives to amphotericin B and flucytosine as therapy for selected systemic mycoses. Ketoconazole and itraconazole are effective in patients with the chronic, indolent forms of the endemic mycoses, including blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, and histoplasmosis; itraconazole is also effective in patients with sporotrichosis. Fluconazole is useful in the common forms of fungal meningitis--namely, coccidioidal and cryptococcal meningitis. In addition, fluconazole is effective for selected patients with serious candida syndromes such as candidemia, and itraconazole is the most effective of the azoles for the treatment of aspergillosis.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                16 March 2016
                : 10
                : 1161-1171
                Department of Oral Medicine, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Hong Hua; Zhimin Yan, Department of Oral Medicine, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Avenue South, Haidian District, Beijing 100081, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 10 821 95363, Fax +86 10 621 73402, Email honghua1968@ 123456aliyun.com ; yzhimin96@ 123456163.com
                © 2016 Lyu et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                nystatin,oral candidiasis,systematic review,meta-analysis,safety,dosage forms,treatment duration


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