This article explores the socioeconomic factors affecting contraceptive use and method choice among women of urban slums using the nationally representative 2006 Bangladesh Urban Health Survey. Both bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were applied to examine the relationship between a set of sociodemographic factors and the dependent variables. Overall, the contraceptive prevalence rate was 58.1%, of which 53.2% were modern methods. Women's age, access to TV, number of unions, nongovernmental organization membership, working status of women, number of living children, child mortality, and wealth index were important determinants of contraceptive use and method preference. Sex composition of surviving children and women's education were the most important determinants of contraceptive use and method choice. Programs should be strengthened to provide nonclinical modern methods free of cost among the slum dwellers. Doorstep delivery services of modern contraceptive methods may raise the contraceptive prevalence rate among the slum dwellers in Bangladesh.