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      Plant Breeding for Intercropping in Temperate Field Crop Systems: A Review

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          Abstract

          Monoculture cropping systems currently dominate temperate agroecosystems. However, intercropping can provide valuable benefits, including greater yield stability, increased total productivity, and resilience in the face of pest and disease outbreaks. Plant breeding efforts in temperate field crops are largely focused on monoculture production, but as intercropping becomes more widespread, there is a need for cultivars adapted to these cropping systems. Cultivar development for intercropping systems requires a systems approach, from the decision to breed for intercropping systems through the final stages of variety testing and release. Design of a breeding scheme should include information about species variation for performance in intercropping, presence of genotype × management interaction, observation of key traits conferring success in intercropping systems, and the specificity of intercropping performance. Together this information can help to identify an optimal selection scheme. Agronomic and ecological knowledge are critical in the design of selection schemes in cropping systems with greater complexity, and interaction with other researchers and key stakeholders inform breeding decisions throughout the process. This review explores the above considerations through three case studies: (1) forage mixtures, (2) perennial groundcover systems (PGC), and (3) soybean-pennycress intercropping. We provide an overview of each cropping system, identify relevant considerations for plant breeding efforts, describe previous breeding focused on the cropping system, examine the extent to which proposed theoretical approaches have been implemented in breeding programs, and identify areas for future development.

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          Global consequences of land use.

          Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Worldwide changes to forests, farmlands, waterways, and air are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, water, and shelter to more than six billion people. Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and urban areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by large increases in energy, water, and fertilizer consumption, along with considerable losses of biodiversity. Such changes in land use have enabled humans to appropriate an increasing share of the planet's resources, but they also potentially undermine the capacity of ecosystems to sustain food production, maintain freshwater and forest resources, regulate climate and air quality, and ameliorate infectious diseases. We face the challenge of managing trade-offs between immediate human needs and maintaining the capacity of the biosphere to provide goods and services in the long term.
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            Prediction of Total Genetic Value Using Genome-Wide Dense Marker Maps

            Recent advances in molecular genetic techniques will make dense marker maps available and genotyping many individuals for these markers feasible. Here we attempted to estimate the effects of ∼50,000 marker haplotypes simultaneously from a limited number of phenotypic records. A genome of 1000 cM was simulated with a marker spacing of 1 cM. The markers surrounding every 1-cM region were combined into marker haplotypes. Due to finite population size (Ne = 100), the marker haplotypes were in linkage disequilibrium with the QTL located between the markers. Using least squares, all haplotype effects could not be estimated simultaneously. When only the biggest effects were included, they were overestimated and the accuracy of predicting genetic values of the offspring of the recorded animals was only 0.32. Best linear unbiased prediction of haplotype effects assumed equal variances associated to each 1-cM chromosomal segment, which yielded an accuracy of 0.73, although this assumption was far from true. Bayesian methods that assumed a prior distribution of the variance associated with each chromosome segment increased this accuracy to 0.85, even when the prior was not correct. It was concluded that selection on genetic values predicted from markers could substantially increase the rate of genetic gain in animals and plants, especially if combined with reproductive techniques to shorten the generation interval.
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              Positive interactions among plants

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-462X
                31 March 2022
                2022
                : 13
                : 843065
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Plant Breeding and Genetics Section, School of Integrative Plant Science, Cornell University , Ithaca, NY, United States
                [2] 2The Land Institute , Salina, KS, United States
                [3] 3Department of Horticulture, Iowa State University , Ames, IA, United States
                [4] 4Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota , Saint Paul, MN, United States
                [5] 5Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences, College of Agriculture, Auburn University , Auburn, AL, United States
                [6] 6Soil and Crop Sciences Section, School of Integrative Plant Science, Cornell University , Ithaca, NY, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Diego Rubiales, Institute for Sustainable Agriculture (CSIC), Spain

                Reviewed by: Sean Robert Asselin, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Canada; Ilias Travlos, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece

                *Correspondence: Virginia M. Moore, vm377@ 123456cornell.edu

                This article was submitted to Plant Breeding, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Article
                10.3389/fpls.2022.843065
                9009171
                35432391
                ddfc68ae-7708-44ac-b0a6-d8111508793f
                Copyright © 2022 Moore, Schlautman, Fei, Roberts, Wolfe, Ryan, Wells and Lorenz.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 24 December 2021
                : 07 March 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 223, Pages: 20, Words: 16985
                Funding
                Funded by: National Institute of Food and Agriculture, doi 10.13039/100005825;
                Award ID: #2019-67012-34886
                Award ID: #2017-67019-26370
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Review

                Plant science & Botany
                agroecology,ecosystem services,intercropping,plant breeding,polyculture,sustainable cropping systems

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