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      Digestibilidad ileal estandarizada de la proteína y aminoácidos de la pasta de ajonjolí en cerdos en crecimiento Translated title: Standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids of sesame meal in growing pigs

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          Abstract

          Resumen Para determinar la digestibilidad ileal aparente (DIA) y estandarizada (DIE) de los aminoácidos de pasta de ajonjolí (PA), se utilizaron 10 cerdos de 78.6 ± 5.2 kg, alojados en jaulas metabólicas; localizadas en una sala con temperatura controlada (19 a 22 °C). A los cerdos se les implantó una cánula “T” en íleon y se alimentaron dos veces al día, a 2.5 veces su requerimiento de energía digestible de mantenimiento (110 kcal por kg de PV0.75). Se elaboraron dos dietas con 160 g de PC/kg de alimento: una con PA y otra con pasta de soya (PS). Los resultados muestran que la DIA de los siguientes aminoácidos fue superior en la PA que en la PS: arginina (P<0.0001) 7.3 unidades; alanina, ácido glutámico, glicina, metionina y valina fue en promedio 6.8 unidades mayor (P<0.01); cisteína fue mayor en 11.5 unidades (P <0.05). Contrariamente la DIA de prolina (P<0.0001), leucina (P<0.01) y lisina (P<0.05) fueron inferiores en 21.9, 2.8 y 2.5 unidades respectivamente en la PA que en la PS. La DIE de arginina (P<0.0001) fue 6.7 % superior; valina (P<0.001) 10.6 % mayor, alanina, ácido glutámico, glicina y treonina (P<0.01) fue superior en promedio en 6.4 %; y de cisteína, histidina, isoleucina, y tirosina (P<0.05) fue superior en 7.45 % en la PA que en la PS. La DIE de prolina (P<0.01) y leucina (P<0.05) fueron inferiores en 4.7 y 2.1 en la PA que en PS. Se concluye que la PA es una buena fuente de aminoácidos digestibles para la alimentación del cerdo.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract To determine the apparent (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of the amino acids of sesame meal (SM), 10 pigs of 78.6 ± 5.2 kg, housed in metabolic cages, were used; located in a room with controlled temperature (19 to 22 °C). The pigs were implanted with a “T” cannula in the ileum and fed twice a day, at 2.5 times their digestible energy requirement for maintenance (110 kcal per kg of LW0.75). Two diets were prepared with 160 g of CP/kg of feed: one with SM and one with soybean meal (SBM). The results show that the AID of the following amino acids was higher in SM than in SBM: arginine (P<0.0001) 7.3 units; alanine, glutamic acid, glycine, methionine and valine, it was on average 6.8 units higher (P<0.01); cysteine, it was higher by 11.5 units (P<0.05). On the contrary, the AID of proline (P<0.0001), leucine (P<0.01) and lysine (P<0.05) was lower by 21.9, 2.8 and 2.5 units, respectively, in SM than in SBM. The SID of arginine (P<0.0001) was 6.7 % higher; valine (P<0.001) 10.6 % higher, alanine, glutamic acid, glycine and threonine (P<0.01), it was higher on average by 6.4 %; and cysteine, histidine, isoleucine, and tyrosine (P<0.05), it was 7.45 % higher in SM than in SBM. The SID of proline (P<0.01) and leucine (P<0.05) was lower by 4.7 and 2.1 SM than in SBM. It is concluded that SM is a good source of digestible amino acids for pig feeding.

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          Most cited references39

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          Invited review: Amino acid bioavailability and digestibility in pig feed ingredients: terminology and application.

          In this review, the terminology that is used to describe the bioavailability and ileal digestibility of AA in pig feed ingredients is defined. Aspects of the methodology to establish bioavailability and ileal digestibility values also are discussed, and recommendations about the use of these values are provided. Two main factors can contribute to differences between bioavailability and ileal digestibility of AA. First, some AA, such as Lys, may be absorbed in chemical complexes that preclude their use for metabolism. Second, fermentation in the upper gut may result in a net loss or gain of AA to the animal. In addition, dietary effects on the efficiency of using bioavailable AA intake for tissue growth or milk production should be considered and may be attributed to endogenous AA losses in the hindgut and the metabolic costs associated with endogenous gut protein synthesis and losses. Ileal digestibility values may be expressed as apparent ileal digestibility (AID), standardized ileal digestibility (SID), or true ileal digestibility (TID). These terms are used to specify how ileal endogenous AA losses are reflected in digestibility values. Ileal endogenous AA losses may be separated into basal losses, which are not influenced by feed ingredient composition, and specific losses, which are induced by feed ingredient characteristics such as levels and types of fiber and antinutritional factors. Values for AID are established when total ileal outflow of AA (i.e., the sum of endogenous losses and nondigested dietary AA) is related to dietary AA intake. A concern with the use of AID values is that these are not additive in mixtures of feed ingredients. This concern may be overcome by correcting AID values for defined basal endogenous losses of AA, which yields SID values. Furthermore, if the AID values are corrected for basal and specific endogenous losses, then values for TID are calculated. However, reliable procedures to routinely measure specific endogenous losses are not yet available. It is recommended that basal ileal endogenous losses of AA should be measured in digestibility experiments using a defined protein-free diet and that these losses are reported with observed AID and SID values. It is suggested that SID values should be used for feed formulation, at least until more information on TID values becomes available.
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            Phytate in pig and poultry nutrition

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              Phytate and phytase: consequences for protein utilisation.

              The excretion of large amounts of P in effluent from intensive pig and poultry units is indicative of the poor availability of phytate-bound P in plant-derived feed ingredients. This environmental problem prompted the development and acceptance of microbial phytase feed enzymes for single-stomached animals. Their introduction led to an increasing recognition that phytate may have adverse effects on protein utilisation in addition to P. Consequently, the nutritional relevance of protein-phytate interactions for pigs and poultry is considered in the present review. Since the current understanding of the effects of protein-phytate interactions comes mainly from responses obtained to added phytase, literature on the influence of microbial phytases on amino acid digestibility and utilisation is summarised, followed by a discussion of possible mechanisms contributing to the negative effects of phytate. However, the rationale for the protein responses to added phytase remains largely speculative, and several modes of action are probably involved. It may be that the release of protein from protein-phytate complexes occurring naturally in feed ingredients, the prevention of formation of binary and ternary protein-phytate complexes within the gut, the alleviation of the negative impact of phytate on digestive enzymes and the reduction in endogenous amino acid losses are all contributing factors. A better understanding of the mechanisms of protein-phytate interactions and the modes of action of exogenous phytase enzymes is clearly desirable. Studies are also needed to identify and quantify the factors that contribute to the variable amino acid responses to added phytase. It appears that the relative solubilities of phytate salts and proteins from different feed ingredients and their effects on the extent of protein-phytate complex formation, coupled with variations in the effectiveness of phytase in different dietary contexts, may be the major factors responsible.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rmcp
                Revista mexicana de ciencias pecuarias
                Rev. mex. de cienc. pecuarias
                Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico )
                2007-1124
                2448-6698
                December 2021
                : 12
                : 4
                : 1292-1304
                Affiliations
                [2] orgnameInstituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias Mexico
                [1] orgnameUniversidad Autónoma de Querétaro orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Naturales Mexico
                Article
                S2007-11242021000401292 S2007-1124(21)01200401292
                10.22319/rmcp.v12i4.5714
                ddfd0953-7eab-45b5-88bf-8ba6df4ac5cf

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 24 June 2020
                : 25 November 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 39, Pages: 13
                Product

                SciELO Mexico

                Categories
                Notas de investigación

                Aminoácidos,Pasta de Ajonjolí,Pigs,Amino acids,Ileal digestibility,Sesame meal,Cerdos,Digestibilidad ileal

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