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      A Brief Review of West Nile Virus Biology.

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          Abstract

          West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus with increased global incidence in the last decade. It is also a major cause of human encephalitis in the USA. WNV is an arthropod-transmitted virus that mainly affects birds but humans become infected as incidental dead-end hosts which can cause outbreaks in naïve populations. The main vectors of WNV are mosquitoes of the genus Culex, which preferentially feed on birds. As in many other arboviruses, the characteristics that allow Flaviviruses like WNV to replicate and transmit to different hosts are encrypted in their genome, which also contains information for the production of structural and nonstructural proteins needed for host cell infection. WNV and other Flaviviruses have developed different strategies to establish infection, replication, and successful transmission. Most of these strategies include the diversion of the host's immune responses away from the virus. In this review, we describe the molecular structure and protein function of WNV with emphasis on protein involvement in the modulation of antiviral immune responses.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Methods Mol. Biol.
          Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
          1940-6029
          1064-3745
          2016
          : 1435
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, 6439 Garners Ferry Rd, Bldg 2, Room B4, Columbia, SC, 29209, USA.
          [2 ] Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, 6439 Garners Ferry Rd, Bldg 2, Room B4, Columbia, SC, 29209, USA. tonya.colpitts@uscmed.sc.edu.
          Article
          10.1007/978-1-4939-3670-0_1
          27188545

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