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      Long-term effects of catastrophic wind on southern US coastal forests: Lessons from a major hurricane

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          Abstract

          Threats posed by windstorms are an increasing concern to forest managers in the southern United States (US). Studies suggest that the southern US will experience an increase in the occurrence as well as the intensity of windstorms, such as hurricanes, in the future. However, forest managers may have difficulty preparing for this future because there is limited understanding of how windstorms affect the structure and composition of forests over the long term. In this study, we evaluated the impacts of Hurricane Ivan, which made landfall in September 2004 near Gulf Shore, Alabama, impacting forests in the western Florida Panhandle and southwestern Alabama. We acquired the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot data available for the period from 2002 to 2018 for the Ivan-affected area and classified the plots into 4 categories: (1). ND (No Disturbance), (2). NDBH (No Disturbance but Harvested), (3). ID (Disturbance caused by Hurricane Ivan), and (4). IDAH (Disturbance caused by Hurricane Ivan and Harvested). The plots that were damaged by Hurricane Ivan (ID and IDAH plots) had significantly (α = 0.05) (1) higher basal area, (2) higher quadratic mean diameter and height, (3) more diverse tree species composition (species richness and Shannon diversity index), (4) denser stocking of seedling and saplings, (5) lower proportion of dead trees or saplings, and (6) higher live aboveground biomass than the plots that were not damaged by the hurricane (ND and NDBH plots). Diverse stands were not necessarily more windstorm resistant. Species diversity in the overstory may not improve forest resistance to hurricane damage but may improve its resilience following the hurricane. The study suggests that managing stand structure through density management and stand improvement could be critical to windstorm resilience and resistance in the southern US forests.

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          Re-epithelialization and immune cell behaviour in an ex vivo human skin model

          A large body of literature is available on wound healing in humans. Nonetheless, a standardized ex vivo wound model without disruption of the dermal compartment has not been put forward with compelling justification. Here, we present a novel wound model based on application of negative pressure and its effects for epidermal regeneration and immune cell behaviour. Importantly, the basement membrane remained intact after blister roof removal and keratinocytes were absent in the wounded area. Upon six days of culture, the wound was covered with one to three-cell thick K14+Ki67+ keratinocyte layers, indicating that proliferation and migration were involved in wound closure. After eight to twelve days, a multi-layered epidermis was formed expressing epidermal differentiation markers (K10, filaggrin, DSG-1, CDSN). Investigations about immune cell-specific manners revealed more T cells in the blister roof epidermis compared to normal epidermis. We identified several cell populations in blister roof epidermis and suction blister fluid that are absent in normal epidermis which correlated with their decrease in the dermis, indicating a dermal efflux upon negative pressure. Together, our model recapitulates the main features of epithelial wound regeneration, and can be applied for testing wound healing therapies and investigating underlying mechanisms.
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            Double-slit photoelectron interference in strong-field ionization of the neon dimer

            Wave-particle duality is an inherent peculiarity of the quantum world. The double-slit experiment has been frequently used for understanding different aspects of this fundamental concept. The occurrence of interference rests on the lack of which-way information and on the absence of decoherence mechanisms, which could scramble the wave fronts. Here, we report on the observation of two-center interference in the molecular-frame photoelectron momentum distribution upon ionization of the neon dimer by a strong laser field. Postselection of ions, which are measured in coincidence with electrons, allows choosing the symmetry of the residual ion, leading to observation of both, gerade and ungerade, types of interference.
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              The increasing intensity of the strongest tropical cyclones.

              Atlantic tropical cyclones are getting stronger on average, with a 30-year trend that has been related to an increase in ocean temperatures over the Atlantic Ocean and elsewhere. Over the rest of the tropics, however, possible trends in tropical cyclone intensity are less obvious, owing to the unreliability and incompleteness of the observational record and to a restricted focus, in previous trend analyses, on changes in average intensity. Here we overcome these two limitations by examining trends in the upper quantiles of per-cyclone maximum wind speeds (that is, the maximum intensities that cyclones achieve during their lifetimes), estimated from homogeneous data derived from an archive of satellite records. We find significant upward trends for wind speed quantiles above the 70th percentile, with trends as high as 0.3 +/- 0.09 m s(-1) yr(-1) (s.e.) for the strongest cyclones. We note separate upward trends in the estimated lifetime-maximum wind speeds of the very strongest tropical cyclones (99th percentile) over each ocean basin, with the largest increase at this quantile occurring over the North Atlantic, although not all basins show statistically significant increases. Our results are qualitatively consistent with the hypothesis that as the seas warm, the ocean has more energy to convert to tropical cyclone wind.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                6 January 2021
                2021
                : 16
                : 1
                : e0243362
                Affiliations
                [1 ] West Florida Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Milton, Florida, United States of America
                [2 ] Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Alabama A&M University, Normal, Alabama, United States of America
                [3 ] Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America
                [4 ] School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America
                [5 ] Florida Forest Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Tallahassee, Florida, United States of America
                Chinese Academy of Forestry, CHINA
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                ‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9159-5534
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5697-9711
                Article
                PONE-D-20-27957
                10.1371/journal.pone.0243362
                7787386
                33406083
                de31eb42-324a-4277-b873-f44f8474d5f1
                © 2021 Sharma et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 5 September 2020
                : 19 November 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 11, Tables: 3, Pages: 27
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100005825, National Institute of Food and Agriculture;
                Award ID: McIntire Stennis project #1014653
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100005825, National Institute of Food and Agriculture;
                Award ID: Education and Workforce Development grant no. 2019-67012-29700/project accession no. 1019406
                Award Recipient :
                The work upon which this publication is based was funded, in part, through the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Institute of Food and Agriculture McIntire Stennis project to AS (#1014653) and the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative (AFRI) - Education and Workforce Development from the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Institute of Food and Agriculture to SKO (grant no. 2019-67012-29700/project accession no. 1019406). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. No additional external funding was received for this study.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecosystems
                Forests
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecosystems
                Forests
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Terrestrial Environments
                Forests
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Plants
                Trees
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Forest Ecology
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Forest Ecology
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Plants
                Seedlings
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Plants
                Trees
                Pines
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecological Metrics
                Species Diversity
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecological Metrics
                Species Diversity
                Earth Sciences
                Atmospheric Science
                Meteorology
                Storms
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecological Metrics
                Species Diversity
                Shannon Index
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecological Metrics
                Species Diversity
                Shannon Index
                Custom metadata
                The data used in this study are publicly available from the USDA at https://apps.fs.usda.gov/fia/datamart/datamart.html using the information outlined in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript.

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