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      MAESTROS: A Multiwavelength Time-Domain NIRS System to Monitor Changes in Oxygenation and Oxidation State of Cytochrome-C-Oxidase

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          We present a multiwavelength, multichannel, time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy system named MAESTROS. This instrument can measure absorption and scattering coefficients and can quantify the concentrations of oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin ([HbO 2], [HHb]), and oxidation state of cytochrome-c-oxidase ([oxCCO]). This system is composed of a supercontinuum laser source coupled with two acousto-optic tuneable filters. The light is collected by four photomultipliers tubes, connected to a router to redirect the signal to a single time-correlated single-photon counting card. The interface between the system and the tissue is based on optical fibres. This arrangement allows us to resolve up to 16 wavelengths, within the range of 650–900 nm, at a sampling rate compatible with the physiology (from 0.5 to 2 Hz). In this paper, we describe the system and assess its performance based on two specifically designed protocols for photon migration instruments, the basic instrument protocol and nEUROPt protocols, and on a well characterized liquid phantom based on Intralipid and water. Then, the ability to resolve [HbO 2 ], [HHb], and [oxCCO] is demonstrated on a homogeneous liquid phantom, based on blood for [HbO 2], [HHb], and yeast for [oxCCO]. In the future, the system could be used to monitor brain tissue physiology.

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          Most cited references 47

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          Optical Constants of Water in the 200-nm to 200-μm Wavelength Region

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            Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters.

             Frans Jöbsis (1977)
            The relatively good transparency of biological materials in the near infrared region of the spectrum permits sufficient photon transmission through organs in situ for the monitoring of cellular events. Observations by infrared transillumination in the exposed heart and in the brain in cephalo without surgical intervention show that oxygen sufficiency for cytochrome a,a3, function, changes in tissue blood volume, and the average hemoglobin-oxyhemoglobin equilibrium can be recorded effectively and in continuous fashion for research and clinical purposes. The copper atom associated with heme a3 did not respond to anoxia and may be reduced under normoxic conditions, whereas the heme-a copper was at least partially reducible.
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              Three-dimensional probabilistic anatomical cranio-cerebral correlation via the international 10-20 system oriented for transcranial functional brain mapping.

              The recent advent of multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has expanded its technical potential for human brain mapping. However, NIRS measurement has a technical drawback in that it measures cortical activities from the head surface without anatomical information of the object to be measured. This problem is also found in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) that transcranially activates or inactivates the cortical surface. To overcome this drawback, we examined cranio-cerebral correlation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) via the guidance of the international 10-20 system for electrode placement, which had originally been developed for electroencephalography. We projected the 10-20 standard cranial positions over the cerebral cortical surface. After examining the cranio-cerebral correspondence for 17 healthy adults, we normalized the 10-20 cortical projection points of the subjects to the standard Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) and Talairach stereotactic coordinates and obtained their probabilistic distributions. We also expressed the anatomical structures for the 10-20 cortical projection points probabilistically. Next, we examined the distance between the cortical surface and the head surface along the scalp and created a cortical surface depth map. We found that the locations of 10-20 cortical projection points in the standard MNI or Talairach space could be estimated with an average standard deviation of 8 mm. This study provided an initial step toward establishing a three-dimensional probabilistic anatomical platform that enables intra- and intermodal comparisons of NIRS and TMS brain imaging data.

                Author and article information

                IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron
                IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron
                Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
                Jan-Feb 2019
                09 May 2018
                : 25
                : 1
                [1 ]divisionBiomedical Optics Research Laboratory , divisionDepartment of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering , institutionUniversity College London; LondonWC1E 6BTU.K
                [2 ]divisionBiomedical Optics Research Laboratory , divisionDepartment of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering , institutionUniversity College London; LondonWC1E 6BTU.K
                [3 ]divisionElectronic and Electrical Engineering , institutionUniversity College London; LondonWC1E 7JEU.K
                Author notes
                1077-260X © 2018 CCBY. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
                Page count
                Figures: 13, Tables: 2, References: 68, Pages: 12
                Funded by: institutionWellcome Trust; 10.13039/100004440
                Award ID: 088429/Z/09/Z
                This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust (088429/Z/09/Z).


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