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      Atração e penetração de Meloidogyne javanica e Heterodera glycines em raízes excisadas de soja Translated title: Attraction and penetration of Meloidogyne javanica and Heterodera glycines in excised soybean roots

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          Abstract

          Com vista ao estudo de atração e penetração de Meloidogyne javanica (Treub) Chitwood e Heterodera glycines (Ichinoe) em soja (Glycine max L.), desenvolveu-se uma técnica empregando-se segmento de raiz com 2cm de comprimento. Nos segmentos de raiz de soja infectados, observou-se que a penetração de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de M. javanica ocorre pela coifa seguida de migração entre os feixes vasculares do cilindro central. Juvenis de H. glycines penetraram, aproximadamente, 15mm da coifa. A região seccionada da raiz de soja atraiu três vezes mais J2 de M. javanica do que a região da coifa, mas esta não foi tão atrativa para J2 de H. glycines. A obstrução conjunta da coifa e do local seccionado reduziu (83%) a penetração de J2, tanto de M. javanica quanto de H. glycines. Quando apenas um desses locais foi obstruído, a outra extremidade livre compensou o processo atrativo. Portanto, as substâncias atrativas são liberadas por essas extremidades. A penetração de J2 de M. javanica foi maior no segmento de raiz quando comparada com a plântula intacta de soja. Entretanto, os J2 de H. glycines penetraram menos em segmentos de raiz e em plântulas sem folhas, quando comparados com plântulas intactas e com as seccionadas no colo. Portanto, na cultivar de soja "Embrapa 20", a atração e os locais de penetração de J2 de H. glycines e M. javanica são diferenciados. Esta técnica poderá ser útil nos estudos de atração e penetração de outros nematoides endoparasitas.

          Translated abstract

          To study the attraction and penetration of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub) Chitwood and Heterodera glycines (Ichinoe) in soybean (Glycine max L.), a technique using 2-cm long root segments was developed. In infected soybean root segments penetration of second stage juveniles (J2) of M. javanica occured through the root cap following migration between the vascular bundles of the central cylinder. Juveniles of H. glycines penetrated about 15mm from the root cap. The cut region of the soybean root attracted three times more J2 of M. javanica when compared to the root cap, but was not as attractive to H. glycines J2. Sealing both root cap and cut region reduced (83%) the J2 penetration of M. javanica and H. glycines. When only one of these penetration sites was sealed the open site compensated attractiveness. These results show that the attractive substances are released by these two penetration sites. The M. javanica J2 penetration was higher in root segments when compared to whole soybean plants. However, H. glycines J2 penetrated less in root segments and in roots of seedlings without leaves when compared to roots of whole soybean plants and roots of plants without the aerial part. In short, attraction and infection sites of H. glycines and M. javanica J2s in soybean cultivar "Embrapa 20" are different and this technique may be useful in studies of attraction and penetration of other endoparasitic nematodes.

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          Species-dependent effects of border cell and root tip exudates on nematode behavior.

          ABSTRACT Effects of border cell and root tip exudates on root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) behavior were examined. In whole-plant assays using pea, M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) accumulated rapidly around the 1- to 2-mm apical region ensheathed by border cells, but not in the region of elongation. Within 15 to 30 min, J2 which had accumulated within detached clumps of border cells lost motility and entered into a quiescent state. When border cells (and associated root tip exudates) were washed from pea roots prior to challenge with nematodes, no such accumulation and quiescence was induced. Attraction of nematodes by roots was species dependent: no attraction or accumulation occurred in snap bean. Using a quantitative assay, three categories of chemotaxis responses occurred: attraction (pea and alfalfa cv. Thor), repulsion (alfalfa cv. Moapa 69), and no response (snap bean and alfalfa cv. Lahonton). In contrast, total root tip exudates from all three plant species acted as a repellent for M. incognita in the sand assay. An in vitro assay was developed to characterize the induced quiescence response. When total root tip exudate from the tested legumes (as well as corn) was incubated with J2 populations, >80% of the nematodes lost motility. A similar response occurred in Caenorhabditis elegans. Border cell exudates did not induce or contribute to the induction of quiescence. Cocultivation of pea border cells with M. incognita resulted in changes in border cell shape similar to those observed in response to exogenous plant hormones. No such changes occurred in snap bean border cells. Understanding the cell- and host-specific extracellular recognition that occurs between roots and pathogenic nematodes in the early stages before infection occurs could lead to new avenues for disease control.
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            Migration of plant-parasitic nematodes towardas plants roots

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              Efeito de exsudato radicular de Brachiaria decumbens sobre a eclosão e mobilidade de juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne javanica

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                cr
                Ciência Rural
                Cienc. Rural
                Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (Santa Maria )
                1678-4596
                September 2011
                : 41
                : 9
                : 1496-1502
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Fundação do Ensino Superior de Rio Verde
                [2 ] Universidade Federal de Lavras Brazil
                [3 ] Pesquisa e Tecnologia Ltda Brasil
                [4 ] Universidade Federal de Lavras Brazil
                Article
                S0103-84782011000900002
                10.1590/S0103-84782011000900002
                de537873-dd2e-4612-821a-f70068d2cda5

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                Product

                SciELO Brazil

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0103-8478&lng=en
                Categories
                AGRONOMY

                Horticulture
                nematodes,root,seedlings,migration,nematoides,sistema radicular,plântulas,migração
                Horticulture
                nematodes, root, seedlings, migration, nematoides, sistema radicular, plântulas, migração

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