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      Aspectos nutricionales de la disfunción tiroidea en niños y adolescentes con síndrome de Down Translated title: Nutritional aspects of thyroid dysfunction in children and adolescents with down syndrome

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          Abstract

          La trisomía 21 o síndrome de Down (SD) es la causa más frecuente de retardo mental de origen cromosómico, asociada con disfunción tiroidea (DT) y obesidad como problema de salud pública. El hipotiroidismo es la forma más común de DT asociada con SD, con prevalencia cercana a 50%. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de disfunción de tiroidea y aspectos relacionados con el estado nutricional de niños y adolescentes con SD. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo y transversal, en 17 niños con SD (11,5 ± 3,0 años), seleccionados aleatoriamente. El estudio empleo evaluación antropométrica, entrevista dietética con recordatorio de 72 horas y determinación de hormonas tiroideas. El análisis estadístico requirió SPSS 17, con 95% IC, p <0,05. Resultados: Individuos con SD presentaron sobrepeso en 47,1% (n=8). Se observó hipotiroidismo subclínico en 71,4% (n=10), mientras que 28,6% (n=4) mostraron hipotiroidismo clínico. El consumo de yodo (53,4 ± 12,0 vs 130,5 ± 18,1; p<0,05), fenilalanina (0,1 ± 0,0 vs 2,3 ± 0,5; p<0,05) y tirosina (0,1 ± 0,0 vs 2,3 ± 0,5; p<0,05) fue bajo comparado con la media de requerimientos para estos nutrientes tiroideos en niños y adolescentes con SD. El consumo de yodo y concentraciones de T4 (r=0,512; p<0,03) mostraron correlación positiva; asimismo, el consumo de fenilalanina y tirosina (r=0,803; p<0,001). Conclusiones: Los trastornos de organificación de hormonas tiroideas en SD no justifican la DT. Se sugiere suplementación nutricional en etapas precoces de la vida, facilitando un estado eutiroideo que propicie el desarrollo físico y cognitivo en individuos con SD. Palabras clave: Síndrome de Down, disfunción tiroidea, nutrición, niños, adolescentes.

          Translated abstract

          Trisomy 21 or Down Syndrome (DS) is the most common cause of mental retardation with chromosomal origin, associated with thyroid dysfunction (TD) and obesity as a public health problem. Hypothyroidism is the most common form of TD associated with DS, with nearly 50% prevalence. Objective: To determine the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and aspects related to the nutritional status of children and adolescents with DS. Methods: A prospective and cross-sectional study in 17 children with DS (11.5 ± 3.0 years) were randomly selected. The study anthropometric, dietary interview with 72 hours and determination of thyroid hormones was realized. The required statistical analysis SPSS 17 with 95% CI, p <0.05. Results: Individuals with DS were overweight in 47.1% (n = 8). Subclinical hypothyroidism was observed in 71.4% (n = 10), while 28.6% (n = 4) showed clinical hypothyroidism. The consumption of iodine (53.4 ± 12.0 vs 130.5 ± 18.1; p <0.05), phenylalanine (0.1 ± 0, 0 vs 2.3 ± 0.5; p <0.05) and tyrosine (0.1 ± 0.0 vs 2.3 ± 0.5; p <0.05) was low compared to the average requirement for these thyroid nutrients in children and adolescents with DS. Consumption of iodine and T4 concentrations (r = 0.512; p <0.03) showed positive correlation; Also, consumption of phenylalanine and tyrosine (r = 0.803; p <0.001). Conclusions: Organification disorders of thyroid hormones in DS does not justify the TD. Nutritional supplementation of thyroid nutrients providing a euthyroid condition that improves physical and cognitive development in individuals with DS is suggested.

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          Most cited references38

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          Current estimate of Down Syndrome population prevalence in the United States.

          To calculate a reliable estimate of the population prevalence of Down syndrome in the US. The annual number of births of infants with Down syndrome were estimated by applying published birth prevalence rates of Down syndrome by maternal age to US data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for the years for which births by maternal age were available (1940-2008). Death certificate data for persons with Down syndrome were available for the years 1968-2007. We estimated the number of people with Down syndrome on January 1, 2008, using a life table approach based on proportions of deaths by age. Monte Carlo sampling was used to create 90% uncertainty intervals (UIs) for our estimates. We estimated the January 1, 2008, population prevalence of Down syndrome as approximately 250700 (90% UI, 185900-321700) based on proportions of deaths by age from the most recent 2 years (2006-2007) of death certificate data. This estimate corresponds to a prevalence of 8.27 people with Down syndrome per 10000 population (90% UI, 6.14-10.62). Our estimate of Down syndrome prevalence is roughly 25%-40% lower than estimates based solely on current birth prevalence. The results presented here can be considered a starting point for facilitating policy and services planning for persons with Down syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Thyroid dysfunction in Down's syndrome: relation to age and thyroid autoimmunity.

            The prevalence of thyroid disease is increased in Down's syndrome. Most available data come from cross sectional studies. To study longitudinally thyroid function in patients with Down's syndrome in Uppsala county (85 patients) up to the age of 25 years. Observational study based on yearly follow up in a children's clinic. Thyroid function tests were performed at each visit to the clinic. Hypothyroidism was found in 30 and hyperthyroidism was found in two of the 85 patients. No sex difference was seen. Half of the patients with hypothyroidism acquired the condition before the age of 8 years, but only one of them displayed thyroid autoantibodies at diagnosis. Most patients who developed hypothyroidism after this age had thyroid autoantibodies. In the prepubertal patients with hypothyroidism, growth velocity was lower during the year before the start of thyroxine treatment than during the year after treatment began; it was also lower than that of sex and age matched euthyroidic children with Down's syndrome. Thyroid dysfunction in patients with Down's syndrome is common in childhood. Consequently, annual screening is important. Autoimmune thyroid disease is uncommon in young children with Down's syndrome but is common after 8 years of age.
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              Twenty-year trends in the prevalence of Down syndrome and other trisomies in Europe: impact of maternal age and prenatal screening.

              This study examines trends and geographical differences in total and live birth prevalence of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 with regard to increasing maternal age and prenatal diagnosis in Europe. Twenty-one population-based EUROCAT registries covering 6.1 million births between 1990 and 2009 participated. Trisomy cases included live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestational age and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. We present correction to 20 weeks gestational age (ie, correcting early terminations for the probability of fetal survival to 20 weeks) to allow for artefactual screening-related differences in total prevalence. Poisson regression was used. The proportion of births in the population to mothers aged 35+ years in the participating registries increased from 13% in 1990 to 19% in 2009. Total prevalence per 10000 births was 22.0 (95% CI 21.7-22.4) for trisomy 21, 5.0 (95% CI 4.8-5.1) for trisomy 18 and 2.0 (95% CI 1.9-2.2) for trisomy 13; live birth prevalence was 11.2 (95% CI 10.9-11.5) for trisomy 21, 1.04 (95% CI 0.96-1.12) for trisomy 18 and 0.48 (95% CI 0.43-0.54) for trisomy 13. There was an increase in total and total corrected prevalence of all three trisomies over time, mainly explained by increasing maternal age. Live birth prevalence remained stable over time. For trisomy 21, there was a three-fold variation in live birth prevalence between countries. The rise in maternal age has led to an increase in the number of trisomy-affected pregnancies in Europe. Live birth prevalence has remained stable overall. Differences in prenatal screening and termination between countries lead to wide variation in live birth prevalence.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                avpp
                Archivos Venezolanos de Puericultura y Pediatría
                Arch Venez Puer Ped
                Sociedad Venezolana de Puericultura y Pediatría (Caracas )
                0004-0649
                March 2015
                : 78
                : 1
                : 13-17
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad del Zulia Venezuela
                [2 ] Universidad del Zulia Venezuela
                [3 ] Universidad del Zulia Venezuela
                Article
                S0004-06492015000100004
                de5c4b5f-7537-4c22-9cc7-b22ecbd4d155

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0004-0649&lng=en
                Categories
                HEALTH CARE SCIENCES & SERVICES
                HEALTH POLICY & SERVICES
                PEDIATRICS

                Pediatrics,Health & Social care,Public health
                Down syndrome,Síndrome de Down,disfunción tiroidea,nutrición,niños,adolescentes,thyroid dysfunction,nutrition,children,adolescents

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