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      Testing a new surgical instrument to obtain bovine hoof biopsy samples Translated title: Teste de viabilidade de um instrumento cirúrgico para obtenção de biópsias do tecido laminar do casco de bovinos

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          Abstract

          ABSTRACT: The histological and molecular analysis of biopsy samples are fundamental steps for the understanding of physiopathology, diagnosis and prognosis of the diseases. However, harvest of tissue biopsies from hoof lamellar tissue is a procedure with limitations due to lack of effective surgical instruments and techniques. The aim of the current study is to develop and test in vivo a surgical instrument with the specific purpose of harvesting lamellar tissue in cattle. A prototype called Falcão-Faleiros’ lamellotome (INPIBR102013018765-8) was designed, produced and tested. After sedation, five adult cattle were restrained in lateral recumbency and locally anesthetized in two digits. The stratum corneum was worn down using a rotary tool coupled to a 3/8” high-speed cutter until the soft tissue proximity was reached. Next, the inner edge of the worn area was bounded with a scalpel. The lamellotome was introduced to obtain and hold the sample. The histological specimens of 16mm length by 6mm depth were stained with HE, PAS, Masson’s thricome and Shorr. The structures of interest were differentiated in the histological analysis without technical artifacts and a mean number of 85 epidermal laminae per sample were counted. No relevant lameness or wound complication were seen following the procedure. In conclusion the technique using the lamellotme was effective in obtaining lamellar tissue biopsy samples without causing clinical harm in cattle. The procedure showed potential to be used in clinical research or even as a supplementary diagnosis method for routine bovine podiatry.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMO: A avaliação das propriedades histológicas e da expressão de genes e proteínas em biópsias tem sido determinante para o entendimento da fisiopatologia, o diagnóstico e o prognóstico das enfermidades. Entretanto, a obtenção de biópsias do casco é um procedimento com limitações devido à ausência de técnicas e instrumentos específicos. O objetivo foi desenvolver e testar, na espécie bovina, um instrumento cirúrgico especificamente desenvolvido para realização de biópsias de casco nominado lamelótomo de Falcão-Faleiros (INPI, BR102013018765-8). Utilizaram-se cinco bovinos adultos que foram sedados, contidos em decúbito lateral e tiveram dois dígitos anestesiados. Em seguida, uma serra circular acoplada a uma microretífica foi usada para o desgaste do estrato córneo na parede dorsal até próximo do estrato lamelar. Após incisões retilíneas delimitando a borda interna da área desgastada, utilizou-se o lamelótomo para obtenção da amostra. Os fragmentos de 16mm de comprimento e 6mm de profundidade foram fixados em formalina e processados para histologia com colorações HE, PAS, Shorr e tricrômico de Masson. Nenhum dos animais apresentou claudicação ou complicação relevantes no período pós-opertório. As amostras foram consideradas adequadas quanto à integridade das lâminas e à preservação de sua arquitetura. Obtiveram-se média de 85 lâminas epidérmicas viáveis por biópsia. Conclui-se que o lamelótomo de Falcão-Faleiros é apropriado e seguro para a obtenção de biópsias de casco em bovinos, se mostrando promissor para uso em estudos clínicos e na rotina de diagnóstico de problemas podais em bovinos.

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          Most cited references 26

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          A lameness scoring system that uses posture and gait to predict dairy cattle reproductive performance.

          Lameness has contributed to reproductive inefficiency and increased the risk of culling in dairy cows. We developed a 5-point lameness scoring system that assessed gait and placed a novel emphasis on back posture. Our objective was to determine if this system predicted future reproductive performance and the risk of culling. The study was conducted at a commercial dairy farm with a history of declining reproductive efficiency and an increasing prevalence of lameness. A total of 66 primipara and pluripara calved, received an initial lameness score, and completed their 60-d voluntary waiting period. The overall prevalence of lameness (mean lameness score >2) was 65.2%. Scoring continued at 4-wk intervals and ceased with conception or culling. The percentage of cows confirmed pregnant and culled was 77.3 and 22.7, respectively. For each reproductive endpoint, a 2 x 2 table was constructed with lameness score >2 as the positive risk factor and either performance greater than the endpoint mean or being culled as the positive disease or condition. Positive and negative predictive values, relative risk, Chisquare statistic and regression analysis were used to evaluate the data. The positive predictive values for days to first service, days open, breeding herd days, services per pregnancy and being culled were 58, 68, 65, 39 and 35%, respectively. Similarly, the negative predictive values were 79, 96, 100, 96 and 100%, respectively. Except for one reproductive endpoint, the total number of services, all linear regressions were significant at P 2 predicted that a cow would have extended intervals from calving to first service and to conception, spend or be assigned to (explained herein) more total days in the breeding herd, require more services per pregnancy and be 8.4 times more likely to be culled. We believe that this lameness scoring system effectively identifies lame cows. Observation of the arched-back posture in a standing cow (> or =LS 3) should trigger corrective interventions.
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            Bovine acidosis: implications on laminitis.

             J Nocek (1997)
            Bovine lactic acidosis syndrome is associated with large increases of lactic acid in the rumen, which result from diets that are high in ruminally available carbohydrates, or forage that is low in effective fiber, or both. The syndrome involves two separate anatomical areas, the gastrointestinal tract and body fluids, and is related to the rate and extent of lactic acid production, utilization, and absorption. Clinical manifestations range from loss of appetite to death. Lactic acid accumulates in the rumen when the bacteria that synthesize lactic acid outnumber those that utilize lactic acid. The systemic impact of acidosis may have several physiological implications, including laminitis, a diffuse aseptic inflammation of the laminae (corium). Although a nutritional basis for the disease exists, etiology includes a multitude of interactive factors, such as metabolic and digestive disorders, postpartum stress, and localized trauma, which lead to the release of vasoactive substances that trigger mechanisms that cause degenerative changes in the foot. The severity of laminitis is related to the frequency, intensity, and duration of systemic acidotic insults on the mechanisms responsible for the release of vasoactive substance. The critical link between acidosis and laminitis appears to be associated with a persistent hypoperfusion, which results in ischemia in the digit. Management of acidosis is critical in preventing laminitis. High producing dairy herds attempting to maximize energy intake are continually confronted with subclinical acidosis and laminitis. Management of feeding and husbandry practices can be implemented to reduce incidence of disease.
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              Equine laminitis: induced by 48 h hyperinsulinaemia in Standardbred horses.

              Hyperinsulinaemia is known to induce laminitis experimentally in healthy ponies with no history of the condition. Horses are more insulin sensitive than ponies and whether prolonged hyperinsulinaemia and euglycaemia would have a similar laminitogenic effect requires study. To determine if laminitis results when the prolonged euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp technique (p-EHC) is applied to clinically normal Standardbred horses, and to monitor hoof wall temperature seeking an association between vascular activity and laminitis development. Eight young, clinically normal Standardbred horses were assigned into 4 pairs and within each pair, one was assigned randomly to either treatment (n = 4) or control (n = 4) groups. Treated horses received continuous infusions of insulin and glucose until clinical signs of laminitis developed, at which point the horses were subjected to euthanasia. Control horses received an equivalent volume of a balanced electrolyte infusion for the same period. Hoof wall surface temperature (HWST) was monitored continuously throughout the experimental period. All horses in the treatment group were calculated to have normal insulin sensitivity. All treated horses, and none in the control group, developed laminitis (P = 0.01). Pronounced digital pulses were a feature of the treatment group, while insignificant digital pulses occurred in control horses. HWST was higher and less variable in treated horses once hyperinsulinaemia was established. Healthy Standardbred horses subjected to prolonged hyperinsulinaemia develop laminitis within 48 h, demonstrating that laminitis in horses can be triggered by insulin. Insulin resistance and the associated hyperinsulinaemia place horses and ponies at risk of developing laminitis. This study demonstrates a need for prompt management of the persistent hyperinsulinaemia seen in some endocrinopathies.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                pvb
                Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira
                Pesq. Vet. Bras.
                Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA. Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil )
                0100-736X
                1678-5150
                June 2018
                : 38
                : 6
                : 1077-1084
                Affiliations
                Unaí Minas Gerais orgnameUniversidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri Brazil
                Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais orgnameUniversidade Federal de Minas Gerais Brazil
                Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais orgnameUniversidade Federal de Minas Gerais Brazil
                Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais orgnameUniversidade Federal de Minas Gerais Brazil
                Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais orgnameUniversidade Federal de Minas Gerais Brazil
                Article
                S0100-736X2018000601077
                10.1590/1678-5150-pvb-5073

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 36, Pages: 8
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