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      The evolution of head structures in lower Diptera

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      Life sciences, Diptera, Morphology, Head, Evolution

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          The head of adult dipterans is mainly characterized by modifications and more or less far-reaching reductions of the mouthparts (e.g., mandibles and maxillae), linked with the specialization on liquid food and the reduced necessity to process substrates mechanically. In contrast, the compound eyes and the antennae, sense organs used for orientation and for finding a suitable mating partner and oviposition site, are well developed. Some evolutionary novelties are specific adaptations to feeding on liquefied substrates, such as labellae with furrows or pseudotracheae on their surface, and the strongly developed pre– and postcerebral pumping apparatuses. In some dipteran groups specialized on blood, the mandibles are still present as piercing stylets. They are completely reduced in the vast majority of families. Within the group far-reaching modifications of the antennae take place, with a strongly reduced number of segments and a specific configuration in Brachycera. The feeding habits and mouthparts of dipteran larvae are much more diverse than in the adults. The larval head is prognathous and fully exposed in the dipteran groundplan and most groups of lower Diptera. In Tipuloidea and Brachycera it is partly or largely retracted, and the sclerotized elements of the external head capsule are partly or fully reduced. The larval head of Cyclorrhapha is largely reduced. A complex and unique feature of this group is the cephaloskeleton. The movability of the larvae is limited due to the lack of thoracic legs. This can be partly compensated by the mouthparts, which are involved in locomotion in different groups. The mouth hooks associated with the cyclorrhaphan cephaloskeleton provide anchorage in the substrate.

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          Most cited references 209

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          Extinction rates should not be estimated from molecular phylogenies.

          Molecular phylogenies contain information about the tempo and mode of species diversification through time. Because extinction leaves a characteristic signature in the shape of molecular phylogenetic trees, many studies have used data from extant taxa only to infer extinction rates. This is a promising approach for the large number of taxa for which extinction rates cannot be estimated from the fossil record. Here, I explore the consequences of violating a common assumption made by studies of extinction from phylogenetic data. I show that when diversification rates vary among lineages, simple estimators based on the birth-death process are unable to recover true extinction rates. This is problematic for phylogenetic trees with complete taxon sampling as well as for the simpler case of clades with known age and species richness. Given the ubiquity of variation in diversification rates among lineages and clades, these results suggest that extinction rates should not be estimated in the absence of fossil data.
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            The organization of the chemosensory system in Drosophila melanogaster: a review.

             R Stocker (1993)
            This review surveys the organization of the olfactory and gustatory systems in the imago and in the larva of Drosophila melanogaster, both at the sensory and the central level. Olfactory epithelia of the adult are located primarily on the third antennal segment (funiculus) and on the maxillary palps. About 200 basiconic (BS), 150 trichoid (TS) and 60 coeloconic sensilla (CS) cover the surface of the funiculus, and an additional 60 BS are located on the maxillary palps. Males possess about 30% more TS but 20% fewer BS than females. All these sensilla are multineuronal; they may be purely olfactory or multimodal with an olfactory component. Antennal and maxillary afferents converge onto approximately 35 glomeruli within the antennal lobe. These projections obey precise rules: individual fibers are glomerulus-specific, and different types of sensilla are associated with particular subsets of glomeruli. Possible functions of antennal glomeruli are discussed. In contrast to olfactory sensilla, gustatory sensilla of the imago are located at many sites, including the labellum, the pharynx, the legs, the wing margin and the female genitalia. Each of these sensory sites has its own central target. Taste sensilla are usually composed of one mechano- and three chemosensory neurons. Individual chemosensory neurons within a sensillum respond to distinct subsets of molecules and project into different central target regions. The chemosensory system of the larva is much simpler and consists essentially of three major sensillar complexes on the cephalic lobe, the dorsal, terminal and ventral organs, and a series of pharyngeal sensilla.
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              The Phylogeny of the Extant Hexapod Orders


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                ScienceOpen Research
                01 September 2015
                : 0 (ID: de716b9c38fe4670bbffb1c82910f02e )
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                : 1-28
                [1 ]Institut für Spezielle Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie, FSU Jena, 07743 Jena, Germany
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author's e-mail address: Katharina.Schneeberg@
                © 2014 K. Schneeberg and R.G. Beutel.

                This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0 , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at .

                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 4, References: 198, Pages: 28
                Original article


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