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      Efficacy of a novel topical combination of esafoxolaner, eprinomectin and praziquantel against Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis in cats Translated title: Efficacité d’une nouvelle association topique d’esafoxolaner, d’éprinomectine et de praziquantel contre Ixodes ricinus et Ixodes scapularis chez le chat

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          Abstract

          Esafoxolaner is a purified enantiomer of afoxolaner with insecticidal and acaricidal properties. It is combined with eprinomectin and praziquantel in a novel topical endectoparasiticide formulation for cats. The efficacy of this novel formulation was evaluated in three Ixodes ricinus and two Ixodes scapularis experimental studies, with comparable designs. In each study, cats were randomly allocated, based on a pre-treatment tick infestation and count, to a placebo control group or a group treated with the minimum recommended dose of the novel formulation. Cats were infested two days before treatment and weekly thereafter. Immediate efficacy was evaluated 48 h after treatment; persistent efficacy was evaluated 48 h after new weekly infestations for at least one month after the treatment (in one of the studies, the first two weeks of persistent efficacy against I. ricinus were not tested). Efficacy was calculated at each timepoint by comparison of arithmetic means of live ticks found in the control and the treated groups. In the three studies targeting I. ricinus, immediate and persistent efficacies ranged between 91% and 100% for five weeks. In the two studies targeting I. scapularis, immediate and persistent efficacies ranged between 95% and 100%, and 98% and 100% for one month, respectively. These studies provide robust evidence of efficacy of the novel topical formulation of esafoxolaner, eprinomectin and praziquantel against experimental I. ricinus and I. scapularis infestations for at least one month in cats.

          Translated abstract

          L’esafoxolaner est un énantiomère purifié de l’afoxolaner aux propriétés insecticides et acaricides. Il est associé à l’éprinomectine et au praziquantel dans une nouvelle formulation d’endectoparasiticide topique pour chats. L’efficacité de cette nouvelle formulation a été évaluée dans trois études expérimentales sur Ixodes ricinus et deux sur Ixodes scapularis, avec des conceptions comparables. Dans chaque étude, les chats ont été répartis au hasard, sur la base d’une infestation et d’un nombre de tiques avant le traitement, dans un groupe témoin placebo ou dans un groupe traité avec la dose minimale recommandée de la nouvelle formulation. Les chats ont été infestés deux jours avant le traitement et une fois par semaine par la suite. L’efficacité immédiate a été évaluée 48 heures après le traitement et l’efficacité persistante a été évaluée 48 heures après les nouvelles infestations hebdomadaires pendant au moins un mois après le traitement (dans l’une des études, les deux premières semaines d’efficacité persistante contre I. ricinus n’ont pas été testées). L’efficacité a été calculée à chaque temps d’évaluation par comparaison des moyennes arithmétiques des tiques vivantes trouvées dans les groupes témoins et traités. Dans les trois études ciblant I. ricinus, les efficacités immédiates et persistantes variaient entre 91 % et 100 % pendant cinq semaines. Dans les deux études ciblant I. scapularis, les efficacités immédiates et persistantes variaient respectivement entre 95 % et 100 % et 98 % et 100 % pendant un mois. Ces études fournissent des preuves solides de l’efficacité de la nouvelle formulation topique d’esafoxolaner, d’éprinomectine et de praziquantel contre les infestations expérimentales par I. ricinus et I. scapularis pendant au moins un mois chez le chat.

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          Most cited references 47

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          Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden

          Background Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland) and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. Methods A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Results Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N) where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the respondents, the abundance of ticks had increased markedly in LB- and TBE-endemic areas in South (Götaland) and Central Sweden. Conclusions The results suggest that I. ricinus has expanded its range in North Sweden and has become distinctly more abundant in Central and South Sweden during the last three decades. However, in the northern mountain region I. ricinus is still absent. The increased abundance of the tick can be explained by two main factors: First, the high availability of large numbers of important tick maintenance hosts, i.e., cervids, particularly roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) during the last three decades. Second, a warmer climate with milder winters and a prolonged growing season that permits greater survival and proliferation over a larger geographical area of both the tick itself and deer. High reproductive potential of roe deer, high tick infestation rate and the tendency of roe deer to disperse great distances may explain the range expansion of I. ricinus and particularly the appearance of new TBEV foci far away from old TBEV-endemic localities. The geographical presence of LB in Sweden corresponds to the distribution of I. ricinus. Thus, LB is now an emerging disease risk in many parts of North Sweden. Unless countermeasures are undertaken to keep the deer populations, particularly C. capreolus and Dama dama, at the relatively low levels that prevailed before the late 1970s - especially in and around urban areas where human population density is high - by e.g. reduced hunting of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and lynx (Lynx lynx), the incidences of human LB and TBE are expected to continue to be high or even to increase in Sweden in coming decades.
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            Effects of Climate Change on Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in Europe

            Zoonotic tick-borne diseases are an increasing health burden in Europe and there is speculation that this is partly due to climate change affecting vector biology and disease transmission. Data on the vector tick Ixodes ricinus suggest that an extension of its northern and altitude range has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change may also be partly responsible for the change in distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus. Increased winter activity of I. ricinus is probably due to warmer winters and a retrospective study suggests that hotter summers will change the dynamics and pattern of seasonal activity, resulting in the bulk of the tick population becoming active in the latter part of the year. Climate suitability models predict that eight important tick species are likely to establish more northern permanent populations in a climate-warming scenario. However, the complex ecology and epidemiology of such tick-borne diseases as Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis make it difficult to implicate climate change as the main cause of their increasing prevalence. Climate change models are required that take account of the dynamic biological processes involved in vector abundance and pathogen transmission in order to predict future tick-borne disease scenarios.
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              Impact of climatic change on the northern latitude limit and population density of the disease-transmitting European tick Ixodes ricinus.

              We examined whether a reported northward expansion of the geographic distribution limit of the disease-transmitting tick Ixodes ricinus and an increased tick density between the early 1980s and mid-1990s in Sweden was related to climatic changes. The annual number of days with minimum temperatures above vital bioclimatic thresholds for the tick's life-cycle dynamics were related to tick density in both the early 1980s and the mid-1990s in 20 districts in central and northern Sweden. The winters were markedly milder in all of the study areas in the 1990s as compared to the 1980s. Our results indicate that the reported northern shift in the distribution limit of ticks is related to fewer days during the winter seasons with low minimum temperatures, i.e., below -12 degrees C. At high latitudes, low winter temperatures had the clearest impact on tick distribution. Further south, a combination of mild winters (fewer days with minimum temperatures below -7 degrees C) and extended spring and autumn seasons (more days with minimum temperatures from 5 to 8 degrees C) was related to increases in tick density. We conclude that the relatively mild climate of the 1990s in Sweden is probably one of the primary reasons for the observed increase of density and geographic range of I. ricinus ticks. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2021
                02 April 2021
                : 28
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2021/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Boehringer-Ingelheim Animal Health, Missouri Research Center 6498 Jade Rd. Fulton MO 65251 USA
                [2 ] Boehringer-Ingelheim Animal Health 29 Avenue Tony Garnier 69007 Lyon France
                [3 ] Boehringer-Ingelheim Vetmedica GmbH, Kathrinenhof Research Center Walchenseestr. 8–12 83101 Rohrdorf Germany
                [4 ] Boehringer-Ingelheim Animal Health 1730 Olympic Drive Athens GA 30601 USA
                Author notes
                Article
                parasite190168 10.1051/parasite/2021019
                10.1051/parasite/2021019
                8019549
                © J. Prullage et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2021

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 46, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Research Article
                Special Issue – NexGard ® Combo (esafoxolaner, eprinomectin, praziquantel): A new endectocide spot-on formulation for cats. Invited Editor: Frédéric Beugnet

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