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      The Humoral Immune Response to BCG Vaccination

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          Abstract

          Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) is the only currently available vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), but it confers incomplete and variable protection against pulmonary TB in humans and bovine TB (bTB) in cattle. Insights into the immune response induced by BCG offer an underexploited opportunity to gain knowledge that may inform the design of a more efficacious vaccine, which is urgently needed to control these major global epidemics. Humoral immunity in TB and bTB has been neglected, but recent studies supporting a role for antibodies in protection against TB has driven a growing interest in determining their relevance to vaccine development. In this manuscript we review what is known about the humoral immune response to BCG vaccination and re-vaccination across species, including evidence for the induction of specific B cells and antibodies; and how these may relate to protection from TB or bTB. We discuss potential explanations for often conflicting findings and consider how factors such as BCG strain, manufacturing methodology and route of administration influence the humoral response. As novel vaccination strategies include BCG prime-boost regimens, the literature regarding off-target immunomodulatory effects of BCG vaccination on non-specific humoral immunity is also reviewed. Overall, reported outcomes to date are inconsistent, but indicate that humoral responses are heterogeneous and may play different roles in different species, populations, or individual hosts. Further study is warranted to determine whether a new TB vaccine could benefit from the targeting of humoral as well as cell-mediated immunity.

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          A Functional Role for Antibodies in Tuberculosis.

          While a third of the world carries the burden of tuberculosis, disease control has been hindered by a lack of tools, including a rapid, point-of-care diagnostic and a protective vaccine. In many infectious diseases, antibodies (Abs) are powerful biomarkers and important immune mediators. However, in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, a discriminatory or protective role for humoral immunity remains unclear. Using an unbiased antibody profiling approach, we show that individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (Ltb) and active tuberculosis disease (Atb) have distinct Mtb-specific humoral responses, such that Ltb infection is associated with unique Ab Fc functional profiles, selective binding to FcγRIII, and distinct Ab glycosylation patterns. Moreover, compared to Abs from Atb, Abs from Ltb drove enhanced phagolysosomal maturation, inflammasome activation, and, most importantly, macrophage killing of intracellular Mtb. Combined, these data point to a potential role for Fc-mediated Ab effector functions, tuned via differential glycosylation, in Mtb control.
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            The mechanism of action of BCG therapy for bladder cancer--a current perspective.

            Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been used to treat non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer for more than 30 years. It is one of the most successful biotherapies for cancer in use. Despite long clinical experience with BCG, the mechanism of its therapeutic effect is still under investigation. Available evidence suggests that urothelial cells (including bladder cancer cells themselves) and cells of the immune system both have crucial roles in the therapeutic antitumour effect of BCG. The possible involvement of bladder cancer cells includes attachment and internalization of BCG, secretion of cytokines and chemokines, and presentation of BCG and/or cancer cell antigens to cells of the immune system. Immune system cell subsets that have potential roles in BCG therapy include CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes, natural killer cells, granulocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Bladder cancer cells are killed through direct cytotoxicity by these cells, by secretion of soluble factors such as TRAIL (tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), and, to some degree, by the direct action of BCG. Several gaps still exist in our knowledge that should be addressed in future efforts to understand this biotherapy of cancer.
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              Mycobacteria Target DC-SIGN to Suppress Dendritic Cell Function

              Mycobacterium tuberculosis represents a world-wide health risk and immunosuppression is a particular problem in M. tuberculosis infections. Although macrophages are primarily infected, dendritic cells (DCs) are important in inducing cellular immune responses against M. tuberculosis. We hypothesized that DCs represent a target for M. tuberculosis and that the observed immuno-suppression results from modulation of DC functions. We demonstrate that the DC-specific C-type lectin DC-SIGN is an important receptor on DCs that captures and internalizes intact Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) through the mycobacterial cell wall component ManLAM. Antibodies against DC-SIGN block M. bovis BCG infection of DCs. ManLAM is also secreted by M. tuberculosis–infected macrophages and has been implicated as a virulence factor. Strikingly, ManLAM binding to DC-SIGN prevents mycobacteria- or LPS-induced DC maturation. Both mycobacteria and LPS induce DC maturation through Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, suggesting that DC-SIGN, upon binding of ManLAM, interferes with TLR-mediated signals. Blocking antibodies against DC-SIGN reverse the ManLAM-mediated immunosuppressive effects. Our results suggest that M. tuberculosis targets DC-SIGN both to infect DCs and to down-regulate DC-mediated immune responses. Moreover, we demonstrate that DC-SIGN has a broader pathogen recognition profile than previously shown, suggesting that DC-SIGN may represent a molecular target for clinical intervention in infections other than HIV-1.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Immunol
                Front Immunol
                Front. Immunol.
                Frontiers in Immunology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-3224
                11 June 2019
                2019
                : 10
                : 1317
                Affiliations
                [1] 1The Jenner Institute, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford , Oxford, United Kingdom
                [2] 2Department of Bacteriology, Animal and Plant Health Agency , Addlestone, United Kingdom
                [3] 3Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University , Aberystwyth, United Kingdom
                Author notes

                Edited by: Jeffrey K. Actor, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, United States

                Reviewed by: Christine Benn, State Serum Institute (SSI), Denmark; Steven Anthony Porcelli, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, United States

                *Correspondence: Rachel Tanner rachel.tanner@ 123456ndm.ox.ac.uk

                This article was submitted to Vaccines and Molecular Therapeutics, a section of the journal Frontiers in Immunology

                Article
                10.3389/fimmu.2019.01317
                6579862
                31244856
                de80b206-89b2-4f5c-abdb-bfa2933e8356
                Copyright © 2019 Tanner, Villarreal-Ramos, Vordermeier and McShane.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 09 April 2019
                : 23 May 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 224, Pages: 18, Words: 17112
                Categories
                Immunology
                Review

                Immunology
                humoral immunity,bcg vaccine,antibodies,b cells,tuberculosis,bovine tb
                Immunology
                humoral immunity, bcg vaccine, antibodies, b cells, tuberculosis, bovine tb

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