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      Infectious Disease Mortality Rates, Thailand, 1958–2009

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          To better define infectious diseases of concern in Thailand, trends in the mortality rate during 1958–2009 were analyzed by using data from public health statistics reports. From 1958 to the mid-1990s, the rate of infectious disease–associated deaths declined 5-fold (from 163.4 deaths/100,000 population in 1958 to 29.5/100,000 in 1997). This average annual reduction of 3.2 deaths/100,000 population was largely attributed to declines in deaths related to malaria, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and gastrointestinal infections. However, during 1998–2003, the mortality rate increased (peak of 70.0 deaths/100,000 population in 2003), coinciding with increases in mortality rate from AIDS, tuberculosis, and pneumonia. During 2004–2009, the rate declined to 41.0 deaths/100,000 population, coinciding with a decrease in AIDS-related deaths. The emergence of AIDS and the increase in tuberculosis- and pneumonia-related deaths in the late twentieth century emphasize the need to direct resources and efforts to the control of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Counting the dead and what they died from: an assessment of the global status of cause of death data.

          We sought to assess the current status of global data on death registration and to examine several indicators of data completeness and quality. We summarized the availability of death registration data by year and country. Indicators of data quality were assessed for each country and included the timeliness, completeness and coverage of registration and the proportion of deaths assigned to ill-defined causes. At the end of 2003 data on death registration were available from 115 countries, although they were essentially complete for only 64 countries. Coverage of death registration varies from close to 100% in the WHO European Region to less than 10% in the African Region. Only 23 countries have data that are more than 90% complete, where ill-defined causes account for less than 10% of total of causes of death, and where ICD-9 or ICD-10 codes are used. There are 28 countries where less than 70% of the data are complete or where ill-defined codes are assigned to more than 20% of deaths. Twelve high-income countries in western Europe are included among the 55 countries with intermediate-quality data. Few countries have good-quality data on mortality that can be used to adequately support policy development and implementation. There is an urgent need for countries to implement death registration systems, even if only through sample registration, or enhance their existing systems in order to rapidly improve knowledge about the most basic of health statistics: who dies from what?
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            Trends in infectious disease mortality in the United States during the 20th century.

            Recent increases in infectious disease mortality and concern about emerging infections warrant an examination of longer-term trends. To describe trends in infectious disease mortality in the United States during the 20th century. Descriptive study of infectious disease mortality in the United States. Deaths due to infectious diseases from 1900 to 1996 were tallied by using mortality tables. Trends in age-specific infectious disease mortality were examined by using age-specific death rates for 9 common infectious causes of death. Persons who died in the United States between 1900 and 1996. Crude and age-adjusted mortality rates. Infectious disease mortality declined during the first 8 decades of the 20th century from 797 deaths per 100000 in 1900 to 36 deaths per 100000 in 1980. From 1981 to 1995, the mortality rate increased to a peak of 63 deaths per 100000 in 1995 and declined to 59 deaths per 100000 in 1996. The decline was interrupted by a sharp spike in mortality caused by the 1918 influenza epidemic. From 1938 to 1952, the decline was particularly rapid, with mortality decreasing 8.2% per year. Pneumonia and influenza were responsible for the largest number of infectious disease deaths throughout the century. Tuberculosis caused almost as many deaths as pneumonia and influenza early in the century, but tuberculosis mortality dropped off sharply after 1945. Infectious disease mortality increased in the 1980s and early 1990s in persons aged 25 years and older and was mainly due to the emergence of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 25- to 64-year-olds and, to a lesser degree, to increases in pneumonia and influenza deaths among persons aged 65 years and older. There was considerable year-to-year variability in infectious disease mortality, especially for the youngest and oldest age groups. Although most of the 20th century has been marked by declining infectious disease mortality, substantial year-to-year variation as well as recent increases emphasize the dynamic nature of infectious diseases and the need for preparedness to address them.
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              Comparability of cause of death between ICD-9 and ICD-10: preliminary estimates.

              This report presents preliminary results describing the effects of implementing the Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) on mortality statistics for selected causes of death effective with deaths occurring in the United States in 1999. The report also describes major features of the Tenth Revision (ICD-10), including changes from the Ninth Revision (ICD-9) in classification and rules for selecting underlying causes of death. Application of comparability ratios is also discussed. The report is based on cause-of-death information from a large sample of 1996 death certificates filed in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Cause-of-death information in the sample includes underlying cause of death classified by both ICD-9 and ICD-10. Because the data file on which comparability information is derived is incomplete, results are preliminary. Preliminary comparability ratios by cause of death presented in this report indicate the extent of discontinuities in cause-of-death trends from 1998 through 1999 resulting from implementing ICD-10. For some leading causes (e.g., Septicemia, Influenza and pneumonia, Alzheimer's disease, and Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis), the discontinuity in trend is substantial. The ranking of leading causes of death is also substantially affected for some causes of death. Results of this study, although preliminary, are essential to analyzing trends in mortality between ICD-9 and ICD-10. In particular, the results provide a means for interpreting changes between 1998, which is the last year in which ICD-9 was used, and 1999, the year in which ICD-10 was implemented for mortality in the United States.

                Author and article information

                Emerg Infect Dis
                Emerging Infect. Dis
                Emerging Infectious Diseases
                Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
                November 2012
                : 18
                : 11
                : 1794-1801
                International Health Policy Program (IHPP), Nonthaburi, Thailand (S. Aungkulanon, J. Lertiendumrong, K. Bundhamcharoen);
                Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (M. McCarron, S.J. Olsen);
                and Thailand Ministry of Public Health–United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Collaboration, Nonthaburi (S.J. Olsen)
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Suchunya Aungkulanon, International Health Policy Program Ministry of Public Health, Tiwanon Rd, Nonthaburi, 11000 Thailand; email: suchunya@


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