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      Effect of flooding stress on cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Translated title: Efecto del estrés por inundaciones en cacao (Theobroma cacao L.)


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          Resumen El estrés por inundación en cacao es un problema cuya información está dispersa y es escasa, a pesar de que este cultivo es importante para los pequeños agricultores. Las inundaciones afectan a los árboles de cacao en diferentes niveles. Por ejemplo, este tipo de estrés altera la fisiología en términos de fotosíntesis y conductancia estomática; asimismo, provoca daños en el fotosistema II por lo que las plantas de cacao bajo inundación presentan valores elevados de Fv/Fm. Por otro lado, el exceso de agua reduce la capacidad que tienen las plantas de tomar nutrientes (macro y micronutrientes) del suelo. La reducción del crecimiento y el rendimiento son otros síntomas de que los árboles de cacao pueden estar en condiciones anóxicas. Fue interesante encontrar que el cacao tiene una estrategia bioquímica para superar la falta de oxígeno, como aumentar la glucólisis. También tiene una estrategia morfológica como formar lenticelas. Es muy importante elegir un cultivar tolerante al estrés por inundación para limitar los efectos negativos de estrés abiótico.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract Despite the fact that cocoa is very important for small farmers, information about flooding stress is scarce and dispersed being a serious problem. Flood affects cocoa trees in different levels. For example, this kind of stress disrupt the physiology in term of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance; likewise, it provokes damages in the photosystem II reason for which plants of cocoa under flood display high value of Fv/Fm. On the other hand, the overabundance of water reduces the capacity plant have to take nutrients (macro and micro nutrients) from soil. The Reduction of growth and the yield are other symptoms that cocoa trees may be under anoxic conditions. It was interesting to find that cocoa has biochemical strategy to overcome lack of oxygen such as increasing the glycolysis. This specie also has morphological strategy such as forming lenticels. It is very important to choose a flooding stress tolerant cultivar to limit the negative effects of this abiotic stress.

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          Most cited references38

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          Climate change and the need for agricultural adaptation

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            Response and adaptation of photosynthesis, respiration, and antioxidant systems to elevated CO2 with environmental stress in plants

            It is well known that plant photosynthesis and respiration are two fundamental and crucial physiological processes, while the critical role of the antioxidant system in response to abiotic factors is still a focus point for investigating physiological stress. Although one key metabolic process and its response to climatic change have already been reported and reviewed, an integrative review, including several biological processes at multiple scales, has not been well reported. The current review will present a synthesis focusing on the underlying mechanisms in the responses to elevated CO2 at multiple scales, including molecular, cellular, biochemical, physiological, and individual aspects, particularly, for these biological processes under elevated CO2 with other key abiotic stresses, such as heat, drought, and ozone pollution, as well as nitrogen limitation. The present comprehensive review may add timely and substantial information about the topic in recent studies, while it presents what has been well established in previous reviews. First, an outline of the critical biological processes, and an overview of their roles in environmental regulation, is presented. Second, the research advances with regard to the individual subtopics are reviewed, including the response and adaptation of the photosynthetic capacity, respiration, and antioxidant system to CO2 enrichment alone, and its combination with other climatic change factors. Finally, the potential applications for plant responses at various levels to climate change are discussed. The above issue is currently of crucial concern worldwide, and this review may help in a better understanding of how plants deal with elevated CO2 using other mainstream abiotic factors, including molecular, cellular, biochemical, physiological, and whole individual processes, and the better management of the ecological environment, climate change, and sustainable development.
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              Structure of photosystem I


                Author and article information

                Journal of the Selva Andina Biosphere
                J. Selva Andina Biosph.
                Journal of the Selva Andina Biosphere.; Fundación Selva Andina Research Society.; Departamento de Enseñanza e Investigación en Bioquímica & Microbiología. (La Paz, , Bolivia )
                : 10
                : 2
                : 78-85
                [1] La Molina Lima orgnameUniversidad Nacional Agraria La Molina orgdiv1Faculty of Agronomy orgdiv2Academic Department of Phytotechnics Peru
                S2308-38592022000200078 S2308-3859(22)01000200078

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                : 01 March 2022
                : 01 September 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 40, Pages: 8

                SciELO Bolivia

                MINI REVIEW ARTICLE



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