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      Risk factors of cardiovascular disease among children with chronic kidney disease in Gaza strip

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          Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly recognized as a global public health problem. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in patients with mild-to-moderate CKD and end-stage renal disease. There is accumulating evidence that the increase in CVD burden is present in CKD patients prior to dialysis, due both to conventional risk factors and kidney-specific disease. Detection and initiation of treatment for CVD risk factors at early stages of CKD should be effective in reducing CVD events before as well as after the onset of kidney failure.

          Materials and Methods:

          The study sample consisted of a total of 112 subjects aged ≤12 years: 60 CKD patients and 52 healthy control individuals. All subjects were investigated for a group of CVD risk factors such as: Hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, physical inactivity, body mass index (BMI), family history of CVD, hypoalbuminemia, albuminuria, anemia, Ca x P product, and inflammation in terms of C-reactive protein (CRP).


          Patients (40 males and 20 females) were categorized into four CKD stages (2, 3, 4, and 5) where, Stage 4 had the highest frequency, followed by Stages 3, 5 and 2. Evaluation of the patients indicated that they were shorter, had lower weight and had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure as compared with control subjects. Frequency of physical inactivity among patients was two-fold higher than controls (50% vs. 25%). The patients showed significantly higher levels of cholesterol (163.6±39.8 vs. 141.8±24.2 mg/dL, P<0.0001), triglycerides (145.5±67.1 vs. 82.9±39.8 mg/dL, P<0.0001), low-density lipoprotein (92.6±31.9 vs. 72.5±19 mg/dL, P<</i>0.0001) and albumin/creatinine ratio (1792±3183 vs. 11.1±6.6 mg/g, P<0.0001). Moreover, the patients had lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (41.9±11.0 vs. 52.7±11.7 mg/dL, P<0.0001), hemoglobin (9.8±1.4 vs. 11.9±0.8 g/dL, P<0.0001) and albumin (4.6±0.6 vs. 4.8±0.2 g/dL, P=0.012). The CRP showed higher occurrence among patients (40% were positive for CRP). Calcium and phosphorus evaluation showed significantly lower calcium and higher phosphorus among patients. However, the difference in Ca X P product was not statistically significant.


          The study indicates that many of the CVD risk factors are associated with the different stages of CKD in children patients prior to dialysis, and that some of these factors are exacerbated as CKD progresses.

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          Most cited references 48

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          Strong association between malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis in chronic renal failure.

          Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and malnutrition are widely recognized as leading causes of the increased morbidity and mortality observed in uremic patients. C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute-phase protein, is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in nonrenal patient populations. In chronic renal failure (CRF), the prevalence of an acute-phase response has been associated with an increased mortality. One hundred and nine predialysis patients (age 52 +/- 1 years) with terminal CRF (glomerular filtration rate 7 +/- 1 ml/min) were studied. By using noninvasive B-mode ultrasonography, the cross-sectional carotid intima-media area was calculated, and the presence or absence of carotid plaques was determined. Nutritional status was assessed by subjective global assessment (SGA), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), serum albumin, serum creatinine, serum urea, and 24-hour urine urea excretion. The presence of an inflammatory reaction was assessed by CRP, fibrinogen (N = 46), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; N = 87). Lipid parameters, including Lp(a) and apo(a)-isoforms, as well as markers of oxidative stress (autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein and vitamin E), were also determined. Compared with healthy controls, CRF patients had an increased mean carotid intima-media area (18.3 +/- 0.6 vs. 13.2 +/- 0.7 mm2, P or = 10 mg/liter). Malnourished patients had higher CRP levels (23 +/- 3 vs. 13 +/- 2 mg/liter, P < 0.01), elevated calculated intima-media area (20.2 +/- 0.8 vs. 16.9 +/- 0.7 mm2, P < 0.01) and a higher prevalence of carotid plaques (90 vs. 60%, P < 0.0001) compared with well-nourished patients. During stepwise multivariate analysis adjusting for age and gender, vitamin E (P < 0.05) and CRP (P < 0.05) remained associated with an increased intima-media area. The presence of carotid plaques was significantly associated with age (P < 0.001), log oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL; P < 0.01), and small apo(a) isoform size (P < 0.05) in a multivariate logistic regression model. These results indicate that the rapidly developing atherosclerosis in advanced CRF appears to be caused by a synergism of different mechanisms, such as malnutrition, inflammation, oxidative stress, and genetic components. Apart from classic risk factors, low vitamin E levels and elevated CRP levels are associated with an increased intima-media area, whereas small molecular weight apo(a) isoforms and increased levels of oxLDL are associated with the presence of carotid plaques.
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            Kidney disease as a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease: a statement from the American Heart Association Councils on Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, High Blood Pressure Research, Clinical Cardiology, and Epidemiology and Prevention.

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              Microalbuminuria predicts clinical proteinuria and early mortality in maturity-onset diabetes.

               C E Mogensen (1984)
              We studied whether microalbuminuria (30 to 140 micrograms of albumin per milliliter) would predict the later development of increased proteinuria and early mortality in Type II diabetics. During 1973, morning urine specimens of diabetic clinic patients 50 to 75 years of age whose disease had been diagnosed the age of 45 were examined for albumin level by radioimmunoassay. Seventy-six patients with albumin concentrations of 30 to 140 micrograms per milliliter were identified for long-term follow-up. They were compared with normal controls, diabetic patients with lower albumin concentrations (75 patients with concentrations less than 15 micrograms per milliliter and 53 with concentrations of 16 to 29 micrograms per milliliter), and 28 diabetic patients with higher concentrations (greater than 140). Age, duration of diabetes, treatment method, fasting blood glucose level, blood pressure, height, and weight were determined for the four diabetic groups. After nine years the group with albumin concentrations of 30 to 140 micrograms per milliliter was more likely to have clinically detectable proteinuria (greater than 400 micrograms per milliliter) than were the groups with lower concentrations. Mortality was 148 per cent higher in this group than in normal controls--comparable to the increase (116 per cent) in the group with heavy proteinuria (albumin levels greater than 140 micrograms per milliliter). In addition, mortality was increased 76 per cent in the group with albumin levels of 16 to 29 micrograms per milliliter and 37 per cent in the group with levels below 15. We conclude that microalbuminuria in patients with Type II diabetes is predictive of clinical proteinuria and increased mortality.

                Author and article information

                J Cardiovasc Dis Res
                J Cardiovasc Dis Res
                Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                Apr-Jun 2012
                : 3
                : 2
                : 91-98
                Human Resource Development (HRD), Ministry of Health, Gaza, Palestine
                [1 ] Professor of Molecular Biology, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Islamic University of Gaza, Faculty of Medicine, Gaza, Palestine
                [2 ] Professor of Physiology, Islamic University of Gaza, Faculty of Medicine, Gaza, Palestine
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Mr. Rafat M. Muhaisen, Human Resources Development (HRD), Ministry of Health, Gaza, Palestine. E-mail: rmuhaisen@ 123456hotmail.com
                Copyright: © Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Article


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