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      Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial properties of copper nanoparticles

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          Abstract

          Copper nanoparticle synthesis has been gaining attention due to its availability. However, factors such as agglomeration and rapid oxidation have made it a difficult research area. In the present work, pure copper nanoparticles were prepared in the presence of a chitosan stabilizer through chemical means. The purity of the nanoparticles was authenticated using different characterization techniques, including ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The antibacterial as well as antifungal activity of the nanoparticles were investigated using several microorganisms of interest, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis, and Candida albicans. The effect of a chitosan medium on growth of the microorganism was studied, and this was found to influence growth rate. The size of the copper nanoparticles obtained was in the range of 2–350 nm, depending on the concentration of the chitosan stabilizer.

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          Most cited references 114

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          Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance.

          Metal nanoshells are a class of nanoparticles with tunable optical resonances. In this article, an application of this technology to thermal ablative therapy for cancer is described. By tuning the nanoshells to strongly absorb light in the near infrared, where optical transmission through tissue is optimal, a distribution of nanoshells at depth in tissue can be used to deliver a therapeutic dose of heat by using moderately low exposures of extracorporeally applied near-infrared (NIR) light. Human breast carcinoma cells incubated with nanoshells in vitro were found to have undergone photothermally induced morbidity on exposure to NIR light (820 nm, 35 W/cm2), as determined by using a fluorescent viability stain. Cells without nanoshells displayed no loss in viability after the same periods and conditions of NIR illumination. Likewise, in vivo studies under magnetic resonance guidance revealed that exposure to low doses of NIR light (820 nm, 4 W/cm2) in solid tumors treated with metal nanoshells reached average maximum temperatures capable of inducing irreversible tissue damage (DeltaT = 37.4 +/- 6.6 degrees C) within 4-6 min. Controls treated without nanoshells demonstrated significantly lower average temperatures on exposure to NIR light (DeltaT < 10 degrees C). These findings demonstrated good correlation with histological findings. Tissues heated above the thermal damage threshold displayed coagulation, cell shrinkage, and loss of nuclear staining, which are indicators of irreversible thermal damage. Control tissues appeared undamaged.
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            The bacterial cell envelope.

            The bacteria cell envelope is a complex multilayered structure that serves to protect these organisms from their unpredictable and often hostile environment. The cell envelopes of most bacteria fall into one of two major groups. Gram-negative bacteria are surrounded by a thin peptidoglycan cell wall, which itself is surrounded by an outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharide. Gram-positive bacteria lack an outer membrane but are surrounded by layers of peptidoglycan many times thicker than is found in the gram-negatives. Threading through these layers of peptidoglycan are long anionic polymers, called teichoic acids. The composition and organization of these envelope layers and recent insights into the mechanisms of cell envelope assembly are discussed.
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              Nanoparticle polymer composites: where two small worlds meet.

              The mixing of polymers and nanoparticles is opening pathways for engineering flexible composites that exhibit advantageous electrical, optical, or mechanical properties. Recent advances reveal routes to exploit both enthalpic and entropic interactions so as to direct the spatial distribution of nanoparticles and thereby control the macroscopic performance of the material. For example, by tailoring the particle coating and size, researchers have created self-healing materials for improved sustainability and self-corralling rods for photovoltaic applications. A challenge for future studies is to create hierarchically structured composites in which each sublayer contributes a distinct function to yield a mechanically integrated, multifunctional material.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Nanomedicine
                Int J Nanomedicine
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9114
                1178-2013
                2013
                2013
                21 November 2013
                : 8
                : 4467-4479
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
                [2 ]Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
                [3 ]Materials and Energy, Research Center, Karaj, Iran
                [4 ]Faculty of Pharmacy, UiTM, Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
                [5 ]Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Muhammad Sani Usman, Nor Azowa Ibrahim Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang UPM 43400, Selangor, Malaysia, Tel +601 6361 9032, Fax +603 8943 2508, Email muhusma@ 123456gmail.com , norazowa@ 123456science.upm.edu.my
                Mohamed Ezzat El Zowalaty, Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan 45142, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Email elzow001@ 123456gmail.com , melzowalaty@ 123456jazan.edu.sa
                Article
                ijn-8-4467
                10.2147/IJN.S50837
                3839804
                © 2013 Usman et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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