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      A Study on Oral Mucosal Lesions in 3500 Patients with Dermatological Diseases in South India

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          Abstract

          Background:

          Oral mucosal lesions that are observed in the dermatological diseases are categorized under mucocutaneous conditions. The oral lesions in dermatological diseases may be the early aspects of the disease manifestation or the most significant clinical appearance or the only sign/and or symptom of such dermatological diseases and occasionally lesions occur simultaneously in the skin as well as mucous membrane.

          Aim:

          This present study attempts to find out the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in patients with dermatological diseases.

          Subjects and Methods:

          The study includes 3500 patients who attended out-patient Department of Dermatology. Patients with oral manifestation were subjected for clinical examination in the Department of Oral Pathology. Diagnostic procedures were performed to confirm the clinical oral diagnosis. The results of the study were analyzed by SPSS software version 19.0 (Armonk, NY) and presented as descriptive statistics. Correlation of oral manifestions with their respective dermatological disease was statistically analysed by Pearson's correlation test.( P < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant)

          Results:

          The prevalence rate of oral mucosal lesions in the present study was 1.8% (65/3500). The most frequent lesions observed were psoriasis 32.3% (21/65), lichen planus 18.4% (12/65), Stevens Johnson Syndrome 18.4% (12/65), pemphigus 10.7% (7/65), toxic epidermal necrolysis 4.6% (3/65), systemic lupus erythematosus 3% (2/65), discoid lupus erythematosus 1.5% (1/65), pemphigoid 1.5% (1/65). Gender distribution in the study population was statistically significant ( P < 0.001). Employed and unemployed individuals in the study population were statistically significant ( P < 0.001). Pearson's correlation analysis of oral manifestations with their respective dermatological disease showed r = 0.466 and signifies a positive correlation and is statistically significant at the 0.01 level (two-tailed).

          Conclusion:

          The prevalence rate of oral mucosal lesions in patients with dermatological diseases was relatively low. However, predominant oral mucosal lesions observed in the study were autoimmune in origin with a high morbidity and mortality index. Hence, multidisciplinary approach will definitely help in the prognosis of patients.

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          Most cited references 60

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          Updating the American College of Rheumatology revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus.

           M Hochberg (1997)
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            Development of autoantibodies before the clinical onset of systemic lupus erythematosus.

            Although much is known about the natural history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the development of SLE autoantibodies before the diagnosis of the disease has not been extensively explored. We investigated the onset and progression of autoantibody development before the clinical diagnosis. The Department of Defense Serum Repository contains approximately 30 million specimens prospectively collected from more than 5 million U.S. Armed Forces personnel. We evaluated serum samples obtained from 130 persons before they received a diagnosis of SLE, along with samples from matched controls. In 115 of the 130 patients with SLE (88 percent), at least one SLE autoantibody tested was present before the diagnosis (up to 9.4 years earlier; mean, 3.3 years). Antinuclear antibodies were present in 78 percent (at a dilution of 1:120 or more), anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies in 55 percent, anti-Ro antibodies in 47 percent, anti-La antibodies in 34 percent, anti-Sm antibodies in 32 percent, anti-nuclear ribonucleoprotein antibodies in 26 percent, and antiphospholipid antibodies in 18 percent. Antinuclear, antiphospholipid antibodies, anti-Ro, and anti-La antibodies were present earlier than anti-Sm and anti-nuclear ribonucleoprotein antibodies (a mean of 3.4 years before the diagnosis vs. 1.2 years, P=0.005). Anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies, with a mean onset 2.2 years before the diagnosis, were found later than antinuclear antibodies (P=0.06) and earlier than anti-nuclear ribonucleoprotein antibodies (P=0.005). For many patients, the earliest available serum sample was positive; therefore, these measures of the average time from the first positive antibody test to the diagnosis are underestimates of the time from the development of antibodies to the diagnosis. Of the 130 initial matched controls, 3.8 percent were positive for one or more autoantibodies. Autoantibodies are typically present many years before the diagnosis of SLE. Furthermore, the appearance of autoantibodies in patients with SLE tends to follow a predictable course, with a progressive accumulation of specific autoantibodies before the onset of SLE, while patients are still asymptomatic. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris—incidence and mortality in the UK: population based cohort study

              Objective To determine the incidence of and mortality from bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris in the United Kingdom. Design Retrospective historical cohort study. Setting Computerised medical records from the health improvement network, a large population based UK general practice database. Participants Patients with pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid diagnostic codes and age, sex, and practice matched controls. Main outcome measures Incidence and mortality compared with the control population by calendar period, age group, sex, geographical region, and degree of social deprivation. Results 869 people with bullous pemphigoid and 138 people with pemphigus vulgaris were identified. The median age at presentation for bullous pemphigoid was 80 (range 23-102) years, and 534 (61%) patients were female. The median age at presentation for pemphigus vulgaris was 71 (21-102) years, and 91 (66%) patients were female. Incidences of bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris were 4.3 (95% confidence interval 4.0 to 4.6) and 0.7 (0.6 to 0.8) per 100 000 person years. The incidence of bullous pemphigoid increased over time; the average yearly increase was 17% (incidence rate ratio=1.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 1.2). An average yearly increase in incidence of pemphigus vulgaris of 11% (incidence rate ratio=1.1, 1.0 to 1.2) occurred. The risk of death for patients with bullous pemphigoid was twice as great as for controls (adjusted hazard ratio=2.3, 95% confidence interval 2.0 to 2.7). For pemphigus vulgaris, the risk of death was three times greater than for controls (adjusted hazard ratio=3.3, 2.2 to 5.2). Conclusions Incidences of bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris are increasing. The reasons for the changes in incidence are not clearly understood but have implications for identifying causative factors. Both disorders are associated with a high risk of death. Previous estimates may have underestimated the risk of death associated with these diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ann Med Health Sci Res
                Ann Med Health Sci Res
                AMHSR
                Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                2141-9248
                2277-9205
                Jul-Aug 2014
                : 4
                : Suppl 2
                : S84-S93
                AMHSR-4-84
                10.4103/2141-9248.138019
                4145524
                Copyright: © Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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