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      Revealing Accessibility of Cryptic Protein Binding Sites within the Functional Collagen Fibril

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          Abstract

          Fibrillar collagens are the most abundant proteins in the extracellular matrix. Not only do they provide structural integrity to all of the connective tissues in the human body, but also their interactions with multiple cell receptors and other matrix molecules are essential to cell functions, such as growth, repair, and cell adhesion. Although specific binding sequences of several receptors have been determined along the collagen monomer, processes by which collagen binding partners recognize their binding sites in the collagen fibril, and the critical driving interactions, are poorly understood. The complex molecular assembly of bundled triple helices within the collagen fibril makes essential ligand binding sites cryptic or hidden from the molecular surface. Yet, critical biological processes that require collagen ligands to have access to interaction sites still occur. In this contribution, we will discuss the molecular packing of the collagen I fibril from the perspective of how collagen ligands access their known binding regions within the fibril, and we will present our analysis of binding site accessibility from the fibril surface. Understanding the basis of these interactions at the atomic level sets the stage for developing drug targets against debilitating collagen diseases and using collagen as drug delivery systems and new biomaterials.

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          Most cited references 118

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          How matrix metalloproteinases regulate cell behavior.

          The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a multigene family of over 25 secreted and cell surface enzymes that process or degrade numerous pericellular substrates. Their targets include other proteinases, proteinase inhibitors, clotting factors, chemotactic molecules, latent growth factors, growth factor-binding proteins, cell surface receptors, cell-cell adhesion molecules, and virtually all structural extracellular matrix proteins. Thus MMPs are able to regulate many biologic processes and are closely regulated themselves. We review recent advances that help to explain how MMPs work, how they are controlled, and how they influence biologic behavior. These advances shed light on how the structure and function of the MMPs are related and on how their transcription, secretion, activation, inhibition, localization, and clearance are controlled. MMPs participate in numerous normal and abnormal processes, and there are new insights into the key substrates and mechanisms responsible for regulating some of these processes in vivo. Our knowledge in the field of MMP biology is rapidly expanding, yet we still do not fully understand how these enzymes regulate most processes of development, homeostasis, and disease.
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            Collagen structure and stability.

            Collagen is the most abundant protein in animals. This fibrous, structural protein comprises a right-handed bundle of three parallel, left-handed polyproline II-type helices. Much progress has been made in elucidating the structure of collagen triple helices and the physicochemical basis for their stability. New evidence demonstrates that stereoelectronic effects and preorganization play a key role in that stability. The fibrillar structure of type I collagen-the prototypical collagen fibril-has been revealed in detail. Artificial collagen fibrils that display some properties of natural collagen fibrils are now accessible using chemical synthesis and self-assembly. A rapidly emerging understanding of the mechanical and structural properties of native collagen fibrils will guide further development of artificial collagenous materials for biomedicine and nanotechnology.
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              Solvent-accessible surfaces of proteins and nucleic acids.

              A method is presented for analytically calculating a smooth, three-dimensional contour about a molecule. The molecular surface envelope may be drawn on either color raster computer displays or real-time vector computer graphics systems. Molecular areas and volumes may be computed analytically from this surface representation. Unlike most previous computer graphics representations of molecules, which imitate wire models or space-filling plastic spheres, this surface shows only the atoms that are accessible to solvent. This analytical method extends the earlier dot surface numerical algorithm, which has been applied in enzymology, rational drug design, immunology, and understanding DNA base sequence recognition.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Biomolecules
                Biomolecules
                biomolecules
                Biomolecules
                MDPI
                2218-273X
                01 November 2017
                December 2017
                : 7
                : 4
                Affiliations
                Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA; cody.hoop@ 123456rutgers.edu (C.L.H.); zhujiejz39@ 123456gmail.com (J.Z.); anamonicanunes@ 123456gmail.com (A.M.N.); david.case@ 123456rutgers.edu (D.A.C.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: jean.baum@ 123456rutgers.edu ; Tel.: +1-848-445-5284
                Article
                biomolecules-07-00076
                10.3390/biom7040076
                5745458
                29104255
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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