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      Purchase experience during the COVID‐19 pandemic and social cognitive theory: The relevance of consumer vulnerability, resilience, and adaptability for purchase satisfaction and repurchase


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          This study explores consumer behavior during the pandemic through the lens of social cognitive theory (SCT). Using the SCT framework and assessing the pandemic as an environmental set, this study strives to fill the gaps in the underexplored impacts of the personal processes of consumer vulnerability, resilience, and adaptability on the behavioral processes of purchase satisfaction and repurchase. The research results show that consumers are self‐efficacious to a degree when it comes to purchase decision making in the context of pandemics. Vulnerability and resilience directly influence the purchase satisfaction and indirectly influence the repurchase intention via satisfaction. Furthermore, purchase satisfaction positively affects the repurchase intention. In addition, research results show that consumer adaptability to online shopping moderates the relationship between consumer resilience and purchase satisfaction. These findings have practical implications in terms of marketers’ communication strategy development.

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          Most cited references88

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          In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.
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            Resilience may be viewed as a measure of stress coping ability and, as such, could be an important target of treatment in anxiety, depression, and stress reactions. We describe a new rating scale to assess resilience. The Connor-Davidson Resilience scale (CD-RISC) comprises of 25 items, each rated on a 5-point scale (0-4), with higher scores reflecting greater resilience. The scale was administered to subjects in the following groups: community sample, primary care outpatients, general psychiatric outpatients, clinical trial of generalized anxiety disorder, and two clinical trials of PTSD. The reliability, validity, and factor analytic structure of the scale were evaluated, and reference scores for study samples were calculated. Sensitivity to treatment effects was examined in subjects from the PTSD clinical trials. The scale demonstrated good psychometric properties and factor analysis yielded five factors. A repeated measures ANOVA showed that an increase in CD-RISC score was associated with greater improvement during treatment. Improvement in CD-RISC score was noted in proportion to overall clinical global improvement, with greatest increase noted in subjects with the highest global improvement and deterioration in CD-RISC score in those with minimal or no global improvement. The CD-RISC has sound psychometric properties and distinguishes between those with greater and lesser resilience. The scale demonstrates that resilience is modifiable and can improve with treatment, with greater improvement corresponding to higher levels of global improvement. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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              Resilience refers to an individual's ability to thrive despite adversity. The current study examined the psychometric properties of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Three undergraduate samples (ns < 500) were used to determine the factor structure of the CD-RISC. The first two samples were used to conduct exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and the third was used for confirmatory factor analysis. The EFA showed that the CD-RISC had an unstable factor structure across two demographically equivalent samples. A series of empirically driven modifications was made, resulting in a 10-item unidimensional scale that demonstrated good internal consistency and construct validity. Overall, the 10-item CD-RISC displays excellent psychometric properties and allows for efficient measurement of resilience.

                Author and article information

                Int J Consum Stud
                Int J Consum Stud
                International Journal of Consumer Studies
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                10 March 2021
                : 10.1111/ijcs.12672
                [ 1 ] Faculty of Economics, Business and Tourism University of Split Split Croatia
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Ivana Kursan Milaković, Faculty of Economics, Business and Tourism, University of Split, Cvite Fiskovića 5, 21000 Split, Croatia.


                © 2021 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

                This article is being made freely available through PubMed Central as part of the COVID-19 public health emergency response. It can be used for unrestricted research re-use and analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source, for the duration of the public health emergency.

                : 23 February 2021
                : 25 October 2020
                : 24 February 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 10, Pages: 18, Words: 23788
                Original Article
                Original Articles
                Custom metadata
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:6.0.1 mode:remove_FC converted:01.04.2021

                adaptability,consumer resilience,consumer vulnerability,purchase satisfaction,repurchase,self‐efficacy,social cognitive theory


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