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      Coffee and Endothelial Function: A Coffee Paradox?

      review-article
      1 , 2
      Nutrients
      MDPI
      coffee, caffeine, endothelial function, nitric oxide

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          Abstract

          Coffee is a popular beverage throughout the world. Coffee contains various chemical compounds (e.g., caffeine, chlorogenic acids, hydroxyhydroquinone, kahweol, cafestol, and complex chemical mixtures). Caffeine is also the most widely consumed pharmacological substance in the world and is included in various beverages (e.g., coffee, tea, soft drinks, and energy drinks), products containing chocolate, and drugs. The effects of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular diseases remain controversial. It is well known that there are J-curve-type or U-curve-type associations of coffee consumption with cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction and stroke. However, there is little information on the direct and indirect effects of coffee consumption on endothelial function in humans. It is likely that the coffee paradox or caffeine paradox exists the association of coffee intake with cardiovascular diseases, cardiovascular outcomes, and endothelial function. This review focusses on the effects of coffee and caffeine on endothelial function from molecular mechanisms to clinical perspectives.

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          Most cited references125

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          The biology of incretin hormones.

          Gut peptides, exemplified by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are secreted in a nutrient-dependent manner and stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Both GIP and GLP-1 also promote beta cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis, leading to expansion of beta cell mass. GLP-1, but not GIP, controls glycemia via additional actions on glucose sensors, inhibition of gastric emptying, food intake and glucagon secretion. Furthermore, GLP-1, unlike GIP, potently stimulates insulin secretion and reduces blood glucose in human subjects with type 2 diabetes. This article summarizes current concepts of incretin action and highlights the potential therapeutic utility of GLP-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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            Carbon monoxide has anti-inflammatory effects involving the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

            The stress-inducible protein heme oxygenase-1 provides protection against oxidative stress. The anti-inflammatory properties of heme oxygenase-1 may serve as a basis for this cytoprotection. We demonstrate here that carbon monoxide, a by-product of heme catabolism by heme oxygenase, mediates potent anti-inflammatory effects. Both in vivo and in vitro, carbon monoxide at low concentrations differentially and selectively inhibited the expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta and increased the lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10. Carbon monoxide mediated these anti-inflammatory effects not through a guanylyl cyclase-cGMP or nitric oxide pathway, but instead through a pathway involving the mitogen-activated protein kinases. These data indicate the possibility that carbon monoxide may have an important protective function in inflammatory disease states and thus has potential therapeutic uses.
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              Long-term follow-up of patients with mild coronary artery disease and endothelial dysfunction.

              Coronary endothelial dysfunction is characterized by vasoconstrictive response to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine. Although endothelial dysfunction is considered an early phase of coronary atherosclerosis, there is a paucity of information regarding the outcome of these patients. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the outcome of patients with mild coronary artery disease on the basis of their endothelial function. Follow-up was obtained in 157 patients with mildly diseased coronary arteries who had undergone coronary vascular reactivity evaluation by graded administration of intracoronary acetylcholine, adenosine, and nitroglycerin and intracoronary ultrasound at the time of diagnostic study. Patients were divided on the basis of their response to acetylcholine into 3 groups: group 1 (n=83), patients with normal endothelial function; group 2 (n=32), patients with mild endothelial dysfunction; and group 3 (n=42), patients with severe endothelial dysfunction. Over an average 28-month follow-up (range, 11 to 52 months), none of the patients from group 1 or 2 had cardiac events. However, 6 (14%) with severe endothelial dysfunction had 10 cardiac events (P<0.05 versus groups 1 and 2). Cardiac events included myocardial infarction, percutaneous or surgical coronary revascularization, and/or cardiac death. Severe endothelial dysfunction in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease is associated with increased cardiac events. This study supports the concept that coronary endothelial dysfunction may play a role in the progression of coronary atherosclerosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                04 September 2019
                September 2019
                : 11
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Cardiovascular Regeneration and Medicine, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan; yhigashi@ 123456hiroshima-u.ac.jp ; Tel./Fax: +81-82-257-5831
                [2 ]Division of Regeneration and Medicine, Medical Center for Translational and Clinical Research, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan
                Article
                nutrients-11-02104
                10.3390/nu11092104
                6770186
                31487926
                dea7b2e7-50f5-475a-b9f7-19dfdb3c6c43
                © 2019 by the author.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                coffee,caffeine,endothelial function,nitric oxide
                Nutrition & Dietetics
                coffee, caffeine, endothelial function, nitric oxide

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