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Towards real-time cardiovascular magnetic resonance guided transarterial CoreValve implantation: in vivo evaluation in swine

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      Abstract

      BackgroundReal-time cardiovascular magnetic resonance (rtCMR) is considered attractive for guiding TAVI. Owing to an unlimited scan plane orientation and an unsurpassed soft-tissue contrast with simultaneous device visualization, rtCMR is presumed to allow safe device navigation and to offer optimal orientation for precise axial positioning. We sought to evaluate the preclinical feasibility of rtCMR-guided transarterial aortic valve implatation (TAVI) using the nitinol-based Medtronic CoreValve bioprosthesis.MethodsrtCMR-guided transfemoral (n = 2) and transsubclavian (n = 6) TAVI was performed in 8 swine using the original CoreValve prosthesis and a modified, CMR-compatible delivery catheter without ferromagnetic components.ResultsrtCMR using TrueFISP sequences provided reliable imaging guidance during TAVI, which was successful in 6 swine. One transfemoral attempt failed due to unsuccessful aortic arch passage and one pericardial tamponade with subsequent death occurred as a result of ventricular perforation by the device tip due to an operating error, this complication being detected without delay by rtCMR. rtCMR allowed for a detailed, simultaneous visualization of the delivery system with the mounted stent-valve and the surrounding anatomy, resulting in improved visualization during navigation through the vasculature, passage of the aortic valve, and during placement and deployment of the stent-valve. Post-interventional success could be confirmed using ECG-triggered time-resolved cine-TrueFISP and flow-sensitive phase-contrast sequences. Intended valve position was confirmed by ex-vivo histology.ConclusionsOur study shows that rtCMR-guided TAVI using the commercial CoreValve prosthesis in conjunction with a modified delivery system is feasible in swine, allowing improved procedural guidance including immediate detection of complications and direct functional assessment with reduction of radiation and omission of contrast media.

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      Transcatheter aortic-valve implantation for aortic stenosis in patients who cannot undergo surgery.

      Many patients with severe aortic stenosis and coexisting conditions are not candidates for surgical replacement of the aortic valve. Recently, transcatheter aortic-valve implantation (TAVI) has been suggested as a less invasive treatment for high-risk patients with aortic stenosis. We randomly assigned patients with severe aortic stenosis, whom surgeons considered not to be suitable candidates for surgery, to standard therapy (including balloon aortic valvuloplasty) or transfemoral transcatheter implantation of a balloon-expandable bovine pericardial valve. The primary end point was the rate of death from any cause. A total of 358 patients with aortic stenosis who were not considered to be suitable candidates for surgery underwent randomization at 21 centers (17 in the United States). At 1 year, the rate of death from any cause (Kaplan–Meier analysis) was 30.7% with TAVI, as compared with 50.7% with standard therapy (hazard ratio with TAVI, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40 to 0.74; P<0.001). The rate of the composite end point of death from any cause or repeat hospitalization was 42.5% with TAVI as compared with 71.6% with standard therapy (hazard ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.59; P<0.001). Among survivors at 1 year, the rate of cardiac symptoms (New York Heart Association class III or IV) was lower among patients who had undergone TAVI than among those who had received standard therapy (25.2% vs. 58.0%, P<0.001). At 30 days, TAVI, as compared with standard therapy, was associated with a higher incidence of major strokes (5.0% vs. 1.1%, P=0.06) and major vascular complications (16.2% vs. 1.1%, P<0.001). In the year after TAVI, there was no deterioration in the functioning of the bioprosthetic valve, as assessed by evidence of stenosis or regurgitation on an echocardiogram. In patients with severe aortic stenosis who were not suitable candidates for surgery, TAVI, as compared with standard therapy, significantly reduced the rates of death from any cause, the composite end point of death from any cause or repeat hospitalization, and cardiac symptoms, despite the higher incidence of major strokes and major vascular events. (Funded by Edwards Lifesciences; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00530894.).
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        Incidence and predictors of early and late mortality after transcatheter aortic valve implantation in 663 patients with severe aortic stenosis.

        There is a lack of information on the incidence and predictors of early mortality at 30 days and late mortality between 30 days and 1 year after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with the self-expanding CoreValve Revalving prosthesis. A total of 663 consecutive patients (mean age 81.0 ± 7.3 years) underwent TAVI with the third generation 18-Fr CoreValve device in 14 centers. Procedural success and intraprocedural mortality were 98% and 0.9%, respectively. The cumulative incidences of mortality were 5.4% at 30 days, 12.2% at 6 months, and 15.0% at 1 year. The incidence density of mortality was 12.3 per 100 person-year of observation. Clinical and hemodynamic benefits observed acutely after TAVI were sustained at 1 year. Paravalvular leakages were trace to mild in the majority of cases. Conversion to open heart surgery (odds ratio [OR] 38.68), cardiac tamponade (OR 10.97), major access site complications (OR 8.47), left ventricular ejection fraction <40% (OR 3.51), prior balloon valvuloplasty (OR 2.87), and diabetes mellitus (OR 2.66) were independent predictors of mortality at 30 days, whereas prior stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 5.47), postprocedural paravalvular leak ≥ 2+ (HR 3.79), prior acute pulmonary edema (HR 2.70), and chronic kidney disease (HR 2.53) were independent predictors of mortality between 30 days and 1 year. Benefit of TAVI with the CoreValve Revalving System is maintained over time up to 1 year, with acceptable mortality rates at various time points. Although procedural complications are strongly associated with early mortality at 30 days, comorbidities and postprocedural paravalvular aortic regurgitation ≥ 2+ mainly impact late outcomes between 30 days and 1 year.
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          Thirty-day results of the SAPIEN aortic Bioprosthesis European Outcome (SOURCE) Registry: A European registry of transcatheter aortic valve implantation using the Edwards SAPIEN valve.

          Transcatheter aortic valve implantation was developed to mitigate the mortality and morbidity associated with high-risk traditional aortic valve replacement. The Edwards SAPIEN valve was approved for transcatheter aortic valve implantation transfemoral delivery in the European Union in November 2007 and for transapical delivery in January 2008. The SAPIEN Aortic Bioprosthesis European Outcome (SOURCE) Registry was designed to assess the initial clinical results of the Edwards SAPIEN valve in consecutive patients in Europe after commercialization. Cohort 1 consists of 1038 patients enrolled at 32 centers. Patients who were treated with the transapical approach (n=575) suffered more comorbidities than the transfemoral patients (n=463), resulting in a significantly higher logistic EuroSCORE (29.1% versus 25.7%; P<0.001). Therefore, these groups are considered different, and outcomes cannot be compared. Overall short-term procedural success was observed in 93.8%. The incidence of valve embolization was 0.3% (n=3), and coronary obstruction was reported for 0.6% (n=6 cases). Incidence of stroke was 2.5% and similar for both procedural approaches. Thirty-day mortality was 6.3% in transfemoral patients and 10.3% in transapical patients. The occurrence of vascular complications was not a predictor of <30-day mortality in the transfemoral population. Technical proficiency can be learned and adapted readily as demonstrated by the short-term procedural success rate and low 30-day mortality rates reported in the SOURCE Registry. Specific complication management and refinement of patient selection are needed to further improve outcomes.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Cardiology, West-German Heart Center Essen, Essen University Hospital, University Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen, Germany
            [2 ]Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen University Hospital, University of Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen, Germany
            [3 ]Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Essen University Hospital, University Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen, Germany
            [4 ]Evasc Medical Systems, 107-1099 West 8th Avenue, Vancouver, BC V6H 1C3, Canada
            [5 ]Institute of Medical Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Henkestrasse 91, 91052 Erlangen, Germany
            Contributors
            Journal
            J Cardiovasc Magn Reson
            J Cardiovasc Magn Reson
            Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
            BioMed Central
            1097-6647
            1532-429X
            2012
            27 March 2012
            : 14
            : 1
            : 21
            3337256
            1532-429X-14-21
            22453050
            10.1186/1532-429X-14-21
            Copyright ©2012 Kahlert et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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