This article reviews the recent trends, developments, and future applications of bio-based polymers produced from renewable resources. Bio-based polymers are attracting increased attention due to environmental concerns and the realization that global petroleum resources are finite. Bio-based polymers not only replace existing polymers in a number of applications but also provide new combinations of properties for new applications. A range of bio-based polymers are presented in this review, focusing on general methods of production, properties, and commercial applications. The review examines the technological and future challenges discussed in bringing these materials to a wide range of applications, together with potential solutions, as well as discusses the major industry players who are bringing these materials to the market.