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      Current progress on bio-based polymers and their future trends


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          This article reviews the recent trends, developments, and future applications of bio-based polymers produced from renewable resources. Bio-based polymers are attracting increased attention due to environmental concerns and the realization that global petroleum resources are finite. Bio-based polymers not only replace existing polymers in a number of applications but also provide new combinations of properties for new applications. A range of bio-based polymers are presented in this review, focusing on general methods of production, properties, and commercial applications. The review examines the technological and future challenges discussed in bringing these materials to a wide range of applications, together with potential solutions, as well as discusses the major industry players who are bringing these materials to the market.

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          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2194-0517-2-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references151

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          A review of chitin and chitosan applications

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            Biological degradation of plastics: a comprehensive review.

            Lack of degradability and the closing of landfill sites as well as growing water and land pollution problems have led to concern about plastics. With the excessive use of plastics and increasing pressure being placed on capacities available for plastic waste disposal, the need for biodegradable plastics and biodegradation of plastic wastes has assumed increasing importance in the last few years. Awareness of the waste problem and its impact on the environment has awakened new interest in the area of degradable polymers. The interest in environmental issues is growing and there are increasing demands to develop material which do not burden the environment significantly. Biodegradation is necessary for water-soluble or water-immiscible polymers because they eventually enter streams which can neither be recycled nor incinerated. It is important to consider the microbial degradation of natural and synthetic polymers in order to understand what is necessary for biodegradation and the mechanisms involved. This requires understanding of the interactions between materials and microorganisms and the biochemical changes involved. Widespread studies on the biodegradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste. This paper reviews the current research on the biodegradation of biodegradable and also the conventional synthetic plastics and also use of various techniques for the analysis of degradation in vitro.
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              Biomedical applications of collagen.

              Collagen is regarded as one of the most useful biomaterials. The excellent biocompatibility and safety due to its biological characteristics, such as biodegradability and weak antigenecity, made collagen the primary resource in medical applications. The main applications of collagen as drug delivery systems are collagen shields in ophthalmology, sponges for burns/wounds, mini-pellets and tablets for protein delivery, gel formulation in combination with liposomes for sustained drug delivery, as controlling material for transdermal delivery, and nanoparticles for gene delivery and basic matrices for cell culture systems. It was also used for tissue engineering including skin replacement, bone substitutes, and artificial blood vessels and valves. This article reviews biomedical applications of collagen including the collagen film, which we have developed as a matrix system for evaluation of tissue calcification and for the embedding of a single cell suspension for tumorigenic study. The advantages and disadvantages of each system are also discussed.

                Author and article information

                Prog Biomater
                Prog Biomater
                Progress in Biomaterials
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                18 March 2013
                18 March 2013
                December 2013
                : 2
                : 8
                [1 ]GRID grid.8217.c, ISNI 0000000419369705, Centre for Research Adoptive Nanostructures and Nano Devices, , Trinity College, ; Dublin 2, Ireland
                [2 ]GRID grid.8217.c, ISNI 0000000419369705, School of Physics, , Trinity College Dublin, ; Dublin 2, Ireland
                [3 ]School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Sciences, Centre for Synthesis and Chemical Biology, UCD Conway Institute, and Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
                [4 ]GRID grid.4280.e, ISNI 0000000121806431, , NUSNNI, National University of Singapore, ; 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore, 117581 Singapore
                [5 ]GRID grid.418788.a, ISNI 000000040470809X, , Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, ; Singapore, 117602 Singapore
                [6 ]GRID grid.258164.c, ISNI 0000000417903548, , Jinan University, ; Guangzhou, China
                © Babu et al.; licensee Springer. 2013

                This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 21 December 2012
                : 21 February 2013
                Review Paper
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                © The Author(s) 2013

                bio-based polymers,renewable resources,biotechnologies,sustainable materials


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