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      Unraveling tumor microenvironment of small-cell lung cancer: Implications for immunotherapy

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      Seminars in Cancer Biology
      Elsevier BV

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          Global cancer statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries

          This article provides an update on the global cancer burden using the GLOBOCAN 2020 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Worldwide, an estimated 19.3 million new cancer cases (18.1 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and almost 10.0 million cancer deaths (9.9 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) occurred in 2020. Female breast cancer has surpassed lung cancer as the most commonly diagnosed cancer, with an estimated 2.3 million new cases (11.7%), followed by lung (11.4%), colorectal (10.0 %), prostate (7.3%), and stomach (5.6%) cancers. Lung cancer remained the leading cause of cancer death, with an estimated 1.8 million deaths (18%), followed by colorectal (9.4%), liver (8.3%), stomach (7.7%), and female breast (6.9%) cancers. Overall incidence was from 2-fold to 3-fold higher in transitioned versus transitioning countries for both sexes, whereas mortality varied <2-fold for men and little for women. Death rates for female breast and cervical cancers, however, were considerably higher in transitioning versus transitioned countries (15.0 vs 12.8 per 100,000 and 12.4 vs 5.2 per 100,000, respectively). The global cancer burden is expected to be 28.4 million cases in 2040, a 47% rise from 2020, with a larger increase in transitioning (64% to 95%) versus transitioned (32% to 56%) countries due to demographic changes, although this may be further exacerbated by increasing risk factors associated with globalization and a growing economy. Efforts to build a sustainable infrastructure for the dissemination of cancer prevention measures and provision of cancer care in transitioning countries is critical for global cancer control.
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            Approaches to treat immune hot, altered and cold tumours with combination immunotherapies

            Immunotherapies are the most rapidly growing drug class and have a major impact in oncology and on human health. It is increasingly clear that the effectiveness of immunomodulatory strategies depends on the presence of a baseline immune response and on unleashing of pre-existing immunity. Therefore, a general consensus emerged on the central part played by effector T cells in the antitumour responses. Recent technological, analytical and mechanistic advances in immunology have enabled the identification of patients who are more likely to respond to immunotherapy. In this Review, we focus on defining hot, altered and cold tumours, the complexity of the tumour microenvironment, the Immunoscore and immune contexture of tumours, and we describe approaches to treat such tumours with combination immunotherapies, including checkpoint inhibitors. In the upcoming era of combination immunotherapy, it is becoming critical to understand the mechanisms responsible for hot, altered or cold immune tumours in order to boost a weak antitumour immunity. The impact of combination therapy on the immune response to convert an immune cold into a hot tumour will be discussed.
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              First-Line Atezolizumab plus Chemotherapy in Extensive-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer

              Enhancing tumor-specific T-cell immunity by inhibiting programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-programmed death 1 (PD-1) signaling has shown promise in the treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer. Combining checkpoint inhibition with cytotoxic chemotherapy may have a synergistic effect and improve efficacy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Seminars in Cancer Biology
                Seminars in Cancer Biology
                Elsevier BV
                1044579X
                November 2022
                November 2022
                : 86
                : 117-125
                Article
                10.1016/j.semcancer.2022.09.005
                36183998
                dec437c2-cc3b-413b-b610-4ee10c1b08a9
                © 2022

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-017

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-037

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-012

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-029

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-004

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