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      An Exploratory Research of 18 Years on the Economic Burden of Diabetes for the Romanian National Health Insurance System

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          The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) rises constantly each year worldwide. Because of that, the funds allocated for the DM treatment have increased over time. Regarding the number of DM cases, Romania is among the top ten countries in Europe. Based on the National Diabetes Programme (NDP), antidiabetic drugs and other expenditures (Self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) test, HbA1c, insulin pumps/insulin pumps supplies) are free of charge. This programme has undergone many changes in drugs supply, in the last two decades: re-organizing the NDP, authorization of new molecules with high prices (e.g., SGLT-2 inhibitors, etc.) or new devices (e.g., insulin pumps, etc.) The main purpose of this study is to identify and analyse the impact of the DM costs on the Romanian health budget and to highlight the evolution of these costs. A retrospective longitudinal research on the official data regarding the DM costs from 2000 to 2017 was performed. The DM funds (DMF) were adjusted with the inflation rate. In this period, the average share of DMF in the total funds allocated for health programmes was 21.3 ± 3.4%, and DMF average growth rate was 25.4% (r = 0.488, p = 0.047). On the other hand, the DMF increased more than 14 times, in spite of the patients’ number having increased only about 2.5 times. Referring to the structure of DMF, the mean value of the antidiabetic drugs cost was of 96,045 ± 67,889 thousand EUR while for other expenditures it was of 11,530 ± 7922 thousand EUR (r = 0.945, p < 0.001). Between 2008 and 2017, the total DMF was 181,252 ± 74,278 thousand EUR/year. Moreover, the average patients’ number was 667,384 ± 94,938 (r = 0.73, p = 0.016), and the cost of treatment was 215 ± 36 EUR/patient/year. Even if the cost is rising, the correct and optimal treatment is a main condition for the diabetic patient’s health and for the prevention of its complications, which have multiple socio-economic repercussions.

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          Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U.S. in 2017

          OBJECTIVE This study updates previous estimates of the economic burden of diagnosed diabetes and quantifies the increased health resource use and lost productivity associated with diabetes in 2017. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We use a prevalence-based approach that combines the demographics of the U.S. population in 2017 with diabetes prevalence, epidemiological data, health care cost, and economic data into a Cost of Diabetes Model. Health resource use and associated medical costs are analyzed by age, sex, race/ethnicity, insurance coverage, medical condition, and health service category. Data sources include national surveys, Medicare standard analytical files, and one of the largest claims databases for the commercially insured population in the U.S. RESULTS The total estimated cost of diagnosed diabetes in 2017 is $327 billion, including $237 billion in direct medical costs and $90 billion in reduced productivity. For the cost categories analyzed, care for people with diagnosed diabetes accounts for 1 in 4 health care dollars in the U.S., and more than half of that expenditure is directly attributable to diabetes. People with diagnosed diabetes incur average medical expenditures of ∼$16,750 per year, of which ∼$9,600 is attributed to diabetes. People with diagnosed diabetes, on average, have medical expenditures ∼2.3 times higher than what expenditures would be in the absence of diabetes. Indirect costs include increased absenteeism ($3.3 billion) and reduced productivity while at work ($26.9 billion) for the employed population, reduced productivity for those not in the labor force ($2.3 billion), inability to work because of disease-related disability ($37.5 billion), and lost productivity due to 277,000 premature deaths attributed to diabetes ($19.9 billion). CONCLUSIONS After adjusting for inflation, economic costs of diabetes increased by 26% from 2012 to 2017 due to the increased prevalence of diabetes and the increased cost per person with diabetes. The growth in diabetes prevalence and medical costs is primarily among the population aged 65 years and older, contributing to a growing economic cost to the Medicare program. The estimates in this article highlight the substantial financial burden that diabetes imposes on society, in addition to intangible costs from pain and suffering, resources from care provided by nonpaid caregivers, and costs associated with undiagnosed diabetes.
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            The Economic Costs of Type 2 Diabetes: A Global Systematic Review

            Background There has been a widely documented and recognized increase in diabetes prevalence, not only in high-income countries (HICs) but also in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), over recent decades. The economic burden associated with diabetes, especially in LMICs, is less clear. Objective We provide a systematic review of the global evidence on the costs of type 2 diabetes. Our review seeks to update and considerably expand the previous major review of the costs of diabetes by capturing the evidence on overall, direct and indirect costs of type 2 diabetes worldwide that has been published since 2001. In addition, we include a body of economic evidence that has hitherto been distinct from the cost-of-illness (COI) work, i.e. studies on the labour market impact of diabetes. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, EconLit and IBSS (without language restrictions) for studies assessing the economic burden of type 2 diabetes published from January 2001 to October 2014. Costs reported in the included studies were converted to international dollars ($) adjusted for 2011 values. Alongside the narrative synthesis and methodological review of the studies, we conduct an exploratory linear regression analysis, examining the factors behind the considerable heterogeneity in existing cost estimates between and within countries. Results We identified 86 COI and 23 labour market studies. COI studies varied considerably both in methods and in cost estimates, with most studies not using a control group, though the use of either regression analysis or matching has increased. Direct costs were generally found to be higher than indirect costs. Direct costs ranged from $242 for a study on out-of-pocket expenditures in Mexico to $11,917 for a study on the cost of diabetes in the USA, while indirect costs ranged from $45 for Pakistan to $16,914 for the Bahamas. In LMICs—in stark contrast to HICs—a substantial part of the cost burden was attributed to patients via out-of-pocket treatment costs. Our regression analysis revealed that direct diabetes costs are closely and positively associated with a country’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, and that the USA stood out as having particularly high costs, even after controlling for GDP per capita. Studies on the labour market impact of diabetes were almost exclusively confined to HICs and found strong adverse effects, particularly for male employment chances. Many of these studies also took into account the possible endogeneity of diabetes, which was not the case for COI studies. Conclusions The reviewed studies indicate a large economic burden of diabetes, most directly affecting patients in LMICs. The magnitude of the cost estimates differs considerably between and within countries, calling for the contextualization of the study results. Scope remains large for adding to the evidence base on labour market effects of diabetes in LMICs. Further, there is a need for future COI studies to incorporate more advanced statistical methods in their analysis to account for possible biases in the estimated costs. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s40273-015-0268-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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              Diabetes and depression: global perspectives.

              Diabetes and depression are highly prevalent conditions and have significant impact on health outcomes. This study reviewed the literature on the prevalence, burden of illness, morbidity, mortality, and cost of comorbid depression in people with diabetes as well as the evidence on effective treatments. Systematic review of the literature on the relationship between diabetes and depression was performed. A comprehensive search of the literature was performed on Medline from 1966 to 2009. Studies that examined the association between diabetes and depression were reviewed. A formal meta-analysis was not performed because of the broad area covered and the heterogeneity of the studies. Instead, a qualitative aggregation of studies was performed. Diabetes and depression are debilitating conditions that are associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Coexisting depression in people with diabetes is associated with decreased adherence to treatment, poor metabolic control, higher complication rates, decreased quality of life, increased healthcare use and cost, increased disability and lost productivity, and increased risk of death. The coexistence of diabetes and depression is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and increased healthcare cost. Coordinated strategies for clinical care are necessary to improve clinical outcomes and reduce the burden of illness.

                Author and article information

                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                21 June 2020
                June 2020
                : 17
                : 12
                [1 ]Preclinical Department, Faculty of Medicine, “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, 2A Lucian Blaga St., 550169 Sibiu, Romania; claudiu.morgovan@ (C.M.); ancamaria.juncan@ (A.M.J.); liviu.rus@ (L.L.R.); felicia.gligor@ (F.G.G.); anca.butuca@ (A.B.)
                [2 ]Department of Hospitality Services, Faculty of Business, “Babeș-Bolyai” University, 7 Horea St., 400174 Cluj-Napoca, Romania; smaranda.cosma@
                [3 ]Department of Medical Informatics and Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, “Iuliu Haţieganu” University Medicine and Pharmacy, 4 Louis Pasteur St., 400349 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
                [4 ]Department of Pharmacy, University of Oradea, 29 Nicolae Jiga St., 410028 Oradea, Romania; mirela_tit@ (D.M.T.); sbungau@ (S.B.)
                [5 ]Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Pathophysiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, “Iuliu Haţieganu” University Medicine and Pharmacy, 4 Louis Pasteur St., 400349 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
                Author notes

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (



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