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      Clinical characteristics and related risk factors of depression in patients with early COPD

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          Background and objective

          Although depression is considered one of the comorbidities of COPD, the clinical characteristics of depression in patients with early COPD remain unknown. We aimed to use national-level data to identify the clinical features and risk factors of depression in patients with early COPD.


          We examined 7,550 subjects who were registered in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database of 2014 because that was the only year in which the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for depression status was administered. Spirometry was used to identify patients with COPD whose forced expiratory volume in 1 second was 50% or more, and these patients were included in the analysis.


          Of the 211 subjects with early COPD, 14.2% also had depression, whereas 85.8% did not. The patients with depression were predominantly living alone and had a greater prevalence of diabetes compared with the patients without depression. The overall quality of life of the subjects with depression was lower than that of those without depression, and only the quality of life index correlated significantly with depression severity. In the multivariate regression analysis, female sex (adjusted OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.38–2.31; p<0.01), living alone (adjusted OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.37–2.51; p<0.01), and low income (adjusted OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.55–3.04; p<0.01) were identified as significant risk factors for depression.


          In patients with early COPD, depression was associated with a low quality of life, and female sex, living alone and low income were significant risk factors for depression.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Validity of the Brief Patient Health Questionnaire Mood Scale (PHQ-9) in the general population.

          The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module (PHQ-9). It has been subject to studies in medical settings, but its validity as a screening for depression in the general population is unknown. A representative population sample (2,066 subjects, 14-93 years) filled in the PHQ-9 for diagnosis [major depressive disorder, other depressive disorder, depression screen-positive (DS+) and depression screen-negative (DS-)] and other measures for distress (GHQ-12), depression (Brief-BDI) and subjective health perception (EuroQOL; SF-36). A prevalence rate of 9.2% of a current PHQ depressive disorder (major depression 3.8%, subthreshold other depressive disorder 5.4%) was identified. The two depression groups had higher Brief-BDI and GHQ-12 scores, and reported lower health status (EuroQOL) and health-related quality of life (SF-36) than did the DS- group (P's < .001). Strong associations between PHQ-9 depression severity and convergent variables were found (with BDI r = .73, with GHQ-12 r = .59). The results support the construct validity of the PHQ depression scale, which seems to be a useful tool to recognize not only major depression but also subthreshold depressive disorder in the general population.
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            Comparative validity of three screening questionnaires for DSM-IV depressive disorders and physicians? diagnoses

             Craig B. Lowe (2004)
            The aim of this study was to compare the validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the WHO (five) Well Being Index (WBI-5), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), and physicians' recognition of depressive disorders, and to recommend specific cut-off points for clinical decision making. A total of 501 outpatients completed each of the three depression screening questionnaires and received the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) as the criterion standard. In addition, treating physicians were asked to give their psychiatric diagnoses. Criterion validity and Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) were determined. Areas under the curves (AUCs) were compared statistically. All depression scales showed excellent internal consistencies (Cronbach's alpha: 0.85-0.90). For 'major depressive disorder', the operating characteristics of the PHQ were significantly superior to both the HADS and the WBI-5. For 'any depressive disorder', the PHQ showed again the best operating characteristics but the overall difference did not reach statistical significance at the 5% level. Cut-off points that can be recommended for the screening of 'major depressive disorder' had sensitivities of 98% (PHQ), 94% (WBI-5), and 85% (HADS). Corresponding specificities were 80% (PHQ), 78% (WBI-5), and 76% (HADS). In contrast, physicians' recognition of 'major depressive disorder' was poor (sensitivity, 40%; specificity, 87%). Our sample may not be representative of medical outpatients, but sensitivity and specificity are independent of disorder prevalence. All three questionnaires performed well in depression screening, but significant differences in criterion validity existed. These results may be helpful in the selection of questionnaires and cut-off points.
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              South Korean time trade-off values for EQ-5D health states: modeling with observed values for 101 health states.

              This study establishes the South Korean population-based preference weights for EQ-5D based on values elicited from a representative national sample using the time trade-off (TTO) method. The data for this paper came from a South Korean EQ-5D valuation study where 1307 representative respondents were invited to participate and a total of 101 health states defined by the EQ-5D descriptive system were directly valued. Both aggregate and individual level modeling were conducted to generate values for all 243 health states defined by EQ-5D. Various regression techniques and model specifications were also examined in order to produce the best fit model. Final model selection was based on minimizing the difference between the observed and estimated value for each health state. The N3 model yielded the best fit for the observed TTO value at the aggregate level. It had a mean absolute error of 0.029 and only 15 predictions out of 101 had errors exceeding 0.05 in absolute magnitude. The study successfully establishes South Korean population-based preference weights for the EQ-5D. The value set derived here is based on a representative population sample, limiting the interpolation space and possessing better model performance. Thus, this EQ-5D value set should be given preference for use with the South Korean population.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                15 May 2018
                : 13
                : 1583-1590
                Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, KyungHee University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yong Suk Jo, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, KyungHee University Hospital, 23, Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea, Tel +82 958 2922, Fax +82 968 1848, Email lucidyonge@
                © 2018 Lee et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                risk factors, patient health questionnaire-9, depression, early copd


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