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      Climate-smart soils.

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          Abstract

          Soils are integral to the function of all terrestrial ecosystems and to food and fibre production. An overlooked aspect of soils is their potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Although proven practices exist, the implementation of soil-based greenhouse gas mitigation activities are at an early stage and accurately quantifying emissions and reductions remains a substantial challenge. Emerging research and information technology developments provide the potential for a broader inclusion of soils in greenhouse gas policies. Here we highlight 'state of the art' soil greenhouse gas research, summarize mitigation practices and potentials, identify gaps in data and understanding and suggest ways to close such gaps through new research, technology and collaboration.

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          Most cited references 70

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          The Microbial Efficiency-Matrix Stabilization (MEMS) framework integrates plant litter decomposition with soil organic matter stabilization: do labile plant inputs form stable soil organic matter?

          The decomposition and transformation of above- and below-ground plant detritus (litter) is the main process by which soil organic matter (SOM) is formed. Yet, research on litter decay and SOM formation has been largely uncoupled, failing to provide an effective nexus between these two fundamental processes for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling and storage. We present the current understanding of the importance of microbial substrate use efficiency and C and N allocation in controlling the proportion of plant-derived C and N that is incorporated into SOM, and of soil matrix interactions in controlling SOM stabilization. We synthesize this understanding into the Microbial Efficiency-Matrix Stabilization (MEMS) framework. This framework leads to the hypothesis that labile plant constituents are the dominant source of microbial products, relative to input rates, because they are utilized more efficiently by microbes. These microbial products of decomposition would thus become the main precursors of stable SOM by promoting aggregation and through strong chemical bonding to the mineral soil matrix. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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            The Anthropogenic Greenhouse Era Began Thousands of Years Ago

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              Production, oxidation, emission and consumption of methane by soils: A review

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Springer Nature
                1476-4687
                0028-0836
                Apr 07 2016
                : 532
                : 7597
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
                [2 ] Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
                [3 ] Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.
                [4 ] Department of Ecosystem Science and Sustainability, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
                [5 ] School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
                [6 ] W. K. Kellogg Biological Station and Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA.
                [7 ] Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.
                Article
                nature17174
                10.1038/nature17174
                27078564

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