Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are important intracellular mediators for proliferation and hypertrophy and therefore may also regulate cardiomyoblast growth in hypertensive heart disease. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the activities of MAP kinases, namely extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1,2, c-Jun NH<sub>2</sub>-terminal kinases (JNK)1,2 and p38 MAP kinase, in myocardial tissue of 12-week-old Prague normotensive (PNR) and hypertensive rats (PHR), a model of genetic hypertension with marked cardiac hypertrophy. Systolic blood pressure was 121 ± 5 in PNR and 208 ± 15 mm Hg in PHR (p < 0.01). Total heart weight was 247 ± 4 in PNR vs. 316 ± 4 mg/100 g body weight in PHR (p < 0.01). Left and right ventricular weights were 121 ± 5 and 53 ± 3 in PNR vs. 168 ± 4 (p < 0.01) and 57 ± 2 mg/100 g body weight (n.s.) in PHR. Using anti-ERK2 Western blot analysis as well as immunocomplex ERK activity assay, we found no activation of ERK2 in left or right ventricular tissue of PHR and PNR. Similary, p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation and activity were not detectable. In contrast, Western blot analysis using antiphospho-JNK antibodies revealed in myocardial tissue of right and left ventricles significantly greater phosphorylation of JNK2 in PHR than in PNR. This finding was confirmed by immunocomplex JNK activity assay using ATF-2 as substrate, which demonstrated a significant increase in JNK activity in the left ventricle of PHR as compared to PNR (6.4 ± 1.5 vs. 2.5 ± 0.5 OD; each n = 5; p < 0.05). In conclusion, cardiac JNK2 seems to be regulated differently from ERK2 in this rat model. In PHR, as compared to PNR, we found enhanced activity of JNK2 in the left and right ventricles suggesting that JNK2 is involved in hypertensive cardiac disease. The rise in JNK in both ventricles may result indirectly from humoral stimuli, e.g., endothelin-1 and/or angiotensin II, and may contribute to ventricular hypertrophy in this model of spontaneous hypertension.