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      Truth or consequences: the potential implications of short-term cosmetic orthodontics for general dental practitioners

      BDJ

      Springer Nature

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          Root resorption associated with orthodontic tooth movement: a systematic review.

          This systematic review evaluated root resorption as an outcome for patients who had orthodontic tooth movement. The results could provide the best available evidence for clinical decisions to minimize the risks and severity of root resorption. Electronic databases were searched, nonelectronic journals were hand searched, and experts in the field were consulted with no language restrictions. Study selection criteria included randomized clinical trials involving human subjects for orthodontic tooth movement, with fixed appliances, and root resorption recorded during or after treatment. Two authors independently reviewed and extracted data from the selected studies on a standardized form. The searches retrieved 921 unique citations. Titles and abstracts identified 144 full articles from which 13 remained after the inclusion criteria were applied. Differences in the methodologic approaches and reporting results made quantitative statistical comparisons impossible. Evidence suggests that comprehensive orthodontic treatment causes increased incidence and severity of root resorption, and heavy forces might be particularly harmful. Orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption is unaffected by archwire sequencing, bracket prescription, and self-ligation. Previous trauma and tooth morphology are unlikely causative factors. There is some evidence that a 2 to 3 month pause in treatment decreases total root resorption. The results were inconclusive in the clinical management of root resorption, but there is evidence to support the use of light forces, especially with incisor intrusion. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Root resorption after orthodontic treatment: Part 2. Literature review.

            All permanent teeth may show microscopic amounts of root resorption that are clinically insignificant and radiographically undetected. Root resorption of permanent teeth is a probable consequence of orthodontic treatment and active tooth movement. The incidence of reported root resorption during orthodontic treatment varies widely among investigators. Usually, extensive resorption does not affect the functional capacity or the effective life of the tooth. Most studies agree that the root resorption process ceases once the active treatment is terminated. Root resorption of the deciduous dentition is a normal, essential, and physiologic process. Permanent teeth have the potential to clinically undergo significant external root resorption when affected by several stimuli. This resorptive potential varies in persons and between different teeth in the same person. This throws doubt on the role of systemic factors as a primary cause of root resorption during orthodontic treatment. Tooth structure, alveolar bone structure at various locations, and types of movement may explain these variations. The extent of treatment duration and mechanical factors definitely influence root resorption. In most root resorption studies, it is not possible to compare the results and conclusions because of their different methods. Further research in this field is necessary to advance the service of the specialty. The question of whether there is an optimal force to move teeth without resorption or whether root resorption may be predictable remain unanswered. This review indicates the unpredictability and widespread incidence of the root resorption phenomenon.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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              Stability and relapse of dental arch alignment.

               Daniel Little (1990)
              For more than 35 years, research in the Department of Orthodontics, University of Washington has focused on a growing collection of over 600 sets of patient records to assess stability and failure of orthodontic treatment. All had completed treatment a decade or more prior to the last set of data. Evaluation of treated premolar extraction cases, treated non-extraction cases with generalized spacing, cases treated by arch enlargement strategies, and untreated normal occlusions demonstrate similar physiological changes. 1. Arch length reduces following orthodontic treatment, but also does so in untreated normal occlusions. 2. Arch width measured across the mandibular canine teeth typically reduces post-treatment whether the case was expanded during treatment or not. 3. Mandibular anterior crowding during the post-treatment phase is a continuing phenomenon well into the 20-40 age bracket and likely beyond. 4. Third molar absence or presence, impacted or fully erupted, seems to have little effect on the occurrence or degree of relapse. 5. The degree of post-retention anterior crowding is both unpredictable and variable and no pretreatment variables either from clinical findings, casts, or cephalometric radiographs before or after treatment seem to be useful predictors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BDJ
                Br Dent J
                Springer Nature
                0007-0610
                1476-5373
                December 6 2013
                December 6 2013
                : 215
                : 11
                : 551-553
                10.1038/sj.bdj.2013.1140
                © 2013

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