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Management of Hypertension in Diabetic Nephropathy: How Low Should We Go?

,

Blood Purification

S. Karger AG

26766168

10.1159/000441264

Nephropathy, Diabetes, Hypertension

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Abstract

Hypertension is a frequent comorbidity often following the development of diabetic nephropathy among individuals with type 1 diabetes and affecting most patients with type 2 diabetes at the time of diagnosis. Multiple prospective randomized placebo-controlled trials demonstrate that tight blood pressure control among patients with diabetic nephropathy reduces the rates of macrovascular and microvascular complications. While randomized trials exist and support a blood pressure goal of <140/90 mm Hg for patients with nondiabetic kidney disease, there are no prospective data regarding a specific blood pressure goal on progression of diabetic nephropathy. Retrospective data analyses from trials show a linear relationship between either baseline or achieved study blood pressure and progression of nephropathy. Very high albuminuria is a hallmark of diabetic nephropathy with reductions by either angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) monotherapy associated with slowed nephropathy progression. However, combination antihypertensive therapy, while decreasing proteinuria, augments the risk of hyperkalemia, hypotension, and kidney dysfunction. Given the lack of trial data for a BP goal among patients with diabetic nephropathy, prospective trials are needed to define the optimal blood pressure necessary to preserve kidney function. At present, guideline blood pressure goals of less than 140/90 mm Hg and the use of ACEi or ARB therapy for those with more than 300 mg of albuminuria are mandated.

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Most cited references 13

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Effects of losartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.

Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Interruption of the renin-angiotensin system slows the progression of renal disease in patients with type 1 diabetes, but similar data are not available for patients with type 2, the most common form of diabetes. We assessed the role of the angiotensin-II-receptor antagonist losartan in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. A total of 1513 patients were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind study comparing losartan (50 to 100 mg once daily) with placebo, both taken in addition to conventional antihypertensive treatment (calcium-channel antagonists, diuretics, alpha-blockers, beta-blockers, and centrally acting agents), for a mean of 3.4 years. The primary outcome was the composite of a doubling of the base-line serum creatinine concentration, end-stage renal disease, or death. Secondary end points included a composite of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes, proteinuria, and the rate of progression of renal disease. A total of 327 patients in the losartan group reached the primary end point, as compared with 359 in the placebo group (risk reduction, 16 percent; P=0.02). Losartan reduced the incidence of a doubling of the serum creatinine concentration (risk reduction, 25 percent; P=0.006) and end-stage renal disease (risk reduction, 28 percent; P=0.002) but had no effect on the rate of death. The benefit exceeded that attributable to changes in blood pressure. The composite of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes was similar in the two groups, although the rate of first hospitalization for heart failure was significantly lower with losartan (risk reduction, 32 percent; P=0.005). The level of proteinuria declined by 35 percent with losartan (P<0.001 for the comparison with placebo). Losartan conferred significant renal benefits in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy, and it was generally well tolerated.
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Renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes.

It is unknown whether either the angiotensin-II-receptor blocker irbesartan or the calcium-channel blocker amlodipine slows the progression of nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes independently of its capacity to lower the systemic blood pressure. We randomly assigned 1715 hypertensive patients with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes to treatment with irbesartan (300 mg daily), amlodipine (10 mg daily), or placebo. The target blood pressure was 135/85 mm Hg or less in all groups. We compared the groups with regard to the time to the primary composite end point of a doubling of the base-line serum creatinine concentration, the development of end-stage renal disease, or death from any cause. We also compared them with regard to the time to a secondary, cardiovascular composite end point. The mean duration of follow-up was 2.6 years. Treatment with irbesartan was associated with a risk of the primary composite end point that was 20 percent lower than that in the placebo group (P=0.02) and 23 percent lower than that in the amlodipine group (P=0.006). The risk of a doubling of the serum creatinine concentration was 33 percent lower in the irbesartan group than in the placebo group (P=0.003) and 37 percent lower in the irbesartan group than in the amlodipine group (P<0.001). Treatment with irbesartan was associated with a relative risk of end-stage renal disease that was 23 percent lower than that in both other groups (P=0.07 for both comparisons). These differences were not explained by differences in the blood pressures that were achieved. The serum creatinine concentration increased 24 percent more slowly in the irbesartan group than in the placebo group (P=0.008) and 21 percent more slowly than in the amlodipine group (P=0.02). There were no significant differences in the rates of death from any cause or in the cardiovascular composite end point. The angiotensin-II-receptor blocker irbesartan is effective in protecting against the progression of nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes. This protection is independent of the reduction in blood pressure it causes.
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The effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition on diabetic nephropathy. The Collaborative Study Group.

Renal function declines progressively in patients who have diabetic nephropathy, and the decline may be slowed by antihypertensive drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether captopril has kidney-protecting properties independent of its effect on blood pressure in diabetic nephropathy. We performed a randomized, controlled trial comparing captopril with placebo in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in whom urinary protein excretion was > or = 500 mg per day and the serum creatinine concentration was or = 1.5 mg per deciliter, creatinine clearance declined at a rate of 23 +/- 25 percent per year in the captopril group and at a rate of 37 +/- 25 percent per year in the placebo group (P = 0.01). Captopril treatment was associated with a 50 percent reduction in the risk of the combined end points of death, dialysis, and transplantation that was independent of the small disparity in blood pressure between the groups. Captopril protects against deterioration in renal function in insulin-dependent diabetic nephropathy and is significantly more effective than blood-pressure control alone.

Author and article information

Affiliations
Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, ASH Comprehensive Hypertension Center, The University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA
Journal
BPU
Blood Purif
10.1159/issn.0253-5068
Blood Purification
Blood Purif
S. Karger AG (Basel, Switzerland karger@123456karger.com http://www.karger.com )
0253-5068
1421-9735
March 2016
15 January 2016
: 41
: 1-3
: 139-143
© 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Counts
Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 22, Pages: 5
Categories
Review - Advances in CKD 2016

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