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      Management of Hypertension in Diabetic Nephropathy: How Low Should We Go?

      ,

      Blood Purification

      S. Karger AG

      Nephropathy, Diabetes, Hypertension

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          Abstract

          Hypertension is a frequent comorbidity often following the development of diabetic nephropathy among individuals with type 1 diabetes and affecting most patients with type 2 diabetes at the time of diagnosis. Multiple prospective randomized placebo-controlled trials demonstrate that tight blood pressure control among patients with diabetic nephropathy reduces the rates of macrovascular and microvascular complications. While randomized trials exist and support a blood pressure goal of <140/90 mm Hg for patients with nondiabetic kidney disease, there are no prospective data regarding a specific blood pressure goal on progression of diabetic nephropathy. Retrospective data analyses from trials show a linear relationship between either baseline or achieved study blood pressure and progression of nephropathy. Very high albuminuria is a hallmark of diabetic nephropathy with reductions by either angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) monotherapy associated with slowed nephropathy progression. However, combination antihypertensive therapy, while decreasing proteinuria, augments the risk of hyperkalemia, hypotension, and kidney dysfunction. Given the lack of trial data for a BP goal among patients with diabetic nephropathy, prospective trials are needed to define the optimal blood pressure necessary to preserve kidney function. At present, guideline blood pressure goals of less than 140/90 mm Hg and the use of ACEi or ARB therapy for those with more than 300 mg of albuminuria are mandated.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Blood pressure, hypertension, RAAS blockade, and drug therapy in diabetic kidney disease.

          Type 2 diabetes is the most common cause of CKD and ESRD in the United States and the Western world. Hypertension is prevalent in this cohort, and control of blood pressure is perhaps the most important risk factor to reduce CKD progression. The most recent blood pressure target recommended by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes and Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guideline committees is less than 140/90 mmHg for all patients with CKD. There is some evidence for those with 1 g or more of albuminuria, albeit weak, to support a blood pressure target of less than 130/80 mmHg. Multiple studies demonstrate that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers are important in reducing cardiovascular risk and progression of CKD in those with advanced proteinuric nephropathy. However, there is no evidence that they prevent nephropathy or that reduction in microalbuminuria alone is associated with slowed nephropathy progression. The purpose of this article is to review the major studies that have evaluated cardiovascular and kidney endpoints in patients with diabetes and the role of RAAS blockers in the treatment of this disease.
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            Prevalence of hypertension in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

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              Early Predictors of 15-Year End-Stage Renal Disease in Hypertensive Patients

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                Blood Purif
                S. Karger AG (Basel, Switzerland karger@ 123456karger.com http://www.karger.com )
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                March 2016
                15 January 2016
                : 41
                : 1-3
                : 139-143
                Affiliations
                Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, ASH Comprehensive Hypertension Center, The University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA
                Article
                BPU20160411-3139 Blood Purif 2016;41:139-143
                10.1159/000441264
                26766168
                © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 22, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Review - Advances in CKD 2016

                Medicine, General social science

                Hypertension, Diabetes, Nephropathy

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