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      Macro and micro plastics sorb and desorb metals and act as a point source of trace metals to coastal ecosystems

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          Abstract

          Nine urban intertidal regions in Burrard Inlet, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, were sampled for plastic debris. Debris included macro and micro plastics and originated from a wide diversity of uses ranging from personal hygiene to solar cells. Debris was characterized for its polymer through standard physiochemical characteristics, then subject to a weak acid extraction to remove the metals, zinc, copper, cadmium and lead from the polymer. Recently manufactured low density polyethylene (LDPE), nylon, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were subject to the same extraction. Data was statistically analyzed by appropriate parametric and non-parametric tests when needed with significance set at P < 0.05. Polymers identified in field samples in order of abundance were; PVC (39), LDPE (28), PS (18), polyethylene (PE, 9), PP (8), nylon (8), high density polyethylene (HDPE, 7), polycarbonate (PC, 6), PET (6), polyurethane (PUR, 3) and polyoxymethylene (POM, 2). PVC and LDPE accounted for 46% of all samples. Field samples of PVC, HDPE and LDPE had significantly greater amounts of acid extracted copper and HDPE, LDPE and PUR significantly greater amounts of acid extracted zinc. PVC and LDPE had significantly greater amounts of acid extracted cadmium and PVC tended to have greater levels of acid extracted lead, significantly so for HDPE. Five of the collected items demonstrated extreme levels of acid extracted metal; greatest concentrations were 188, 6667, 698,000 and 930 μgg -1 of copper, zinc, lead and cadmium respectively recovered from an unidentified object comprised of PVC. Comparison of recently manufactured versus field samples indicated that recently manufactured samples had significantly greater amounts of acid extracted cadmium and zinc and field samples significantly greater amounts of acid extracted copper and lead which was primarily attributed to metal extracted from field samples of PVC. Plastic debris will affect metals within coastal ecosystems by; 1) providing a sorption site (copper and lead), notably for PVC 2) desorption from the plastic i.e., the “inherent” load (cadmium and zinc) and 3) serving as a point source of acute trace metal exposure to coastal ecosystems. All three mechanisms will put coastal ecosystems at risk to the toxic effects of these metals.

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          Anthropogenic debris in seafood: Plastic debris and fibers from textiles in fish and bivalves sold for human consumption

          The ubiquity of anthropogenic debris in hundreds of species of wildlife and the toxicity of chemicals associated with it has begun to raise concerns regarding the presence of anthropogenic debris in seafood. We assessed the presence of anthropogenic debris in fishes and shellfish on sale for human consumption. We sampled from markets in Makassar, Indonesia, and from California, USA. All fish and shellfish were identified to species where possible. Anthropogenic debris was extracted from the digestive tracts of fish and whole shellfish using a 10% KOH solution and quantified under a dissecting microscope. In Indonesia, anthropogenic debris was found in 28% of individual fish and in 55% of all species. Similarly, in the USA, anthropogenic debris was found in 25% of individual fish and in 67% of all species. Anthropogenic debris was also found in 33% of individual shellfish sampled. All of the anthropogenic debris recovered from fish in Indonesia was plastic, whereas anthropogenic debris recovered from fish in the USA was primarily fibers. Variations in debris types likely reflect different sources and waste management strategies between countries. We report some of the first findings of plastic debris in fishes directly sold for human consumption raising concerns regarding human health.
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            Adsorption of trace metals to plastic resin pellets in the marine environment.

            Plastic production pellets collected from beaches of south west England contain variable concentrations of trace metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) that, in some cases, exceed concentrations reported for local estuarine sediments. The rates and mechanisms by which metals associate with virgin and beached polyethylene pellets were studied by adding a cocktail of 5 μg L(-1) of trace metals to 10 g L(-1) pellet suspensions in filtered seawater. Kinetic profiles were modelled using a pseudo-first-order equation and yielded response times of less than about 100 h and equilibrium partition coefficients of up to about 225 ml g(-1) that were consistently higher for beached pellets than virgin pellets. Adsorption isotherms conformed to both the Langmuir and Freundlich equations and adsorption capacities were greater for beached pellets than for virgin pellets. Results suggest that plastics may represent an important vehicle for the transport of metals in the marine environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Association of metals with plastic production pellets in the marine environment.

              Plastic production pellets sampled from four beaches along a stretch of coastline (south Devon, SW England) and accompanying, loosely adhered and entrapped material removed ultrasonically have been analysed for major metals (Al, Fe, Mn) and trace metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Mo, Sb, Sn, U) following acid digestion. In most cases, metal concentrations in composite pellet samples from each site were less than but within an order of magnitude of corresponding concentrations in the pooled extraneous materials. However, normalisation of data with respect to Al revealed enrichment of Cd and Pb in plastic pellets at two sites. These observations are not wholly due to the association of pellets with fine material that is resistant to ultrasonication since new polyethylene pellets suspended in a harbour for 8 weeks accumulated metals from sea water through adsorption and precipitation. The environmental implications and potential applications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                14 February 2018
                2018
                : 13
                : 2
                Affiliations
                Ecotoxicology Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C. Canada
                VIT University, INDIA
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-17-40071
                10.1371/journal.pone.0191759
                5812603
                29444103
                © 2018 Munier, Bendell

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 4, Pages: 13
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002790, Canadian Network for Research and Innovation in Machining Technology, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada;
                Award ID: 31-611307
                Award Recipient :
                This work was supported by National Science and Engineering Council of Canada, http://www.nserc-crsng.gc.ca/Professors-Professeurs/Grants-Subs/DGIGP-PSIGP_eng.asp, Discovery Grant Programme, 31-611307 to LB.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Physical Sciences
                Chemistry
                Polymer Chemistry
                Macromolecules
                Polymers
                Physical Sciences
                Materials Science
                Materials by Structure
                Polymers
                Physical Sciences
                Materials Science
                Materials by Attribute
                Plastics
                Physical Sciences
                Chemistry
                Polymer Chemistry
                Macromolecules
                Polymers
                Polyvinyl Chloride
                Physical Sciences
                Materials Science
                Materials by Structure
                Polymers
                Polyvinyl Chloride
                Physical Sciences
                Chemistry
                Chemical Elements
                Cadmium
                Physical Sciences
                Chemistry
                Chemical Elements
                Zinc
                Physical Sciences
                Chemistry
                Chemical Elements
                Lead (Element)
                Physical Sciences
                Chemistry
                Chemical Elements
                Copper
                Physical Sciences
                Chemistry
                Polymer Chemistry
                Macromolecules
                Polymers
                Nylons
                Physical Sciences
                Materials Science
                Materials by Structure
                Polymers
                Nylons
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

                Uncategorized

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