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      Prevalence of intestinal coccidian in preschool children from San Felix City, Venezuela Translated title: Prevalencia de coccidios intestinales en niños pre-escolares de San Félix, Venezuela

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          Abstract

          Many epidemiological aspects of intestinal coccidiosis in Bolivar State are not known. There are no studies done in apparently health children. The purpose of this study was to determine intestinal coccidian prevalence in preschool children attending the S.E.U. Teresa de la Parra preschool located in San Felix, Bolivar State, Venezuela. The universe included 109 children, and 73 were included in the study. A spontaneous evacuation fecal sample was collected from each child, preserved in 10% formaldehyde, and analyzed by a formaldehyde-ether technique, and Kinyoun stain. Sixty seven percent of the universe was evaluated (73/109). Eighty seven point seven percent of the children were infected by some parasite and/or commensal. Ten enteroparasite species were diagnosed, and Blastocystis hominis (37%) and Giardia lamblia (27.4%) were the most frequent of the protozoa. Among the helminthes, the most common were Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura with 35.6% each. Prevalence of intestinal coccidian was 10.9% and Cryptosporidium spp. was the only one diagnosed in eight cases (10.9%). The infection did not show any age predilection, but there was a gender bias, since 87.5% of those infected were females. Only three of the cases (37.5%) with Cryptosporidum spp. had diarrhea. In conclusion, a relative high rate of intestinal coccidiosis in the preschool children evaluated was determined.

          Translated abstract

          En el estado Bolívar se desconocen muchos aspectos epidemiológicos de las coccidiosis intestinales. En niños aparentemente sanos no se tiene ningún estudio. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de coccidios intestinales en niños matriculados en el pre-escolar U.E.E. Teresa de la Parra de San Félix, estado Bolívar. El universo fue de 109 niños y la muestra estudiada de 73. Se obtuvo una muestra fecal por evacuación espontánea de cada pre-escolar, la cual fue preservada en formol al 10% y analizada mediante la técnica formol-éter y coloración de Kinyoun. Se evaluó el 67% del universo (73/109). El 87,7% de los niños estaba infectado por algún parásito y/o comensal. Se diagnosticaron un total de 10 especies de enteroparásitos, siendo Blastocystis hominis con 37% y Giardia lamblia con 27,4% los más frecuentes, dentro de los protozoarios. Entre los helmintos los más comunes fueron Ascaris lumbricoides y Trichuris trichiura con 35,6% cada uno. La prevalencia de coccidios intestinales fue 10,9%, siendo Cryptosporidium sp. el único diagnosticado con 8 casos (10,9%). La infección no tuvo predilección por la edad pero si con relación al género, siendo el femenino el más afectado (87,5%). Sólo en tres de los casos (37,5%) con Cryptosporidium sp. se presentó diarrea. En conclusión, se determinó una prevalencia relativamente elevada de coccidiosis intestinal en los preescolares evaluados.

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          Most cited references36

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          Cryptosporidiosis: an emerging, highly infectious threat.

          R Guerrant (1997)
          Cryptosporidium parvum, a leading cause of persistent diarrhea in developing countries, is a major threat to the U.S. water supply. Able to infect with as few as 30 microscopic oocysts, Cryptosporidium is found in untreated surface water, as well as in swimming and wade pools, day-care centers, and hospitals. The organism can cause illnesses lasting longer than 1 to 2 weeks in previously healthy persons or indefinitely in immunocompromised patients; furthermore, in young children in developing countries, cryptosporidiosis predisposes to substantially increased diarrheal illnesses. Recent increased awareness of the threat of cryptosporidiosis should improve detection in patients with diarrhea. New methods such as those using polymerase chain reaction may help with detection of Cryptosporidium in water supplies or in asymptomatic carriers. Although treatment is very limited, new approaches that may reduce secretion or enhance repair of the damaged intestinal mucosa are under study.
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            Understanding intestinal spore-forming protozoa: cryptosporidia, microsporidia, isospora, and cyclospora.

            R Goodgame (1996)
            To summarize recent information about the "new" gastrointestinal protozoal pathogens (cryptosporidia, microsporidia, isospora, and cyclospora) and to help practicing clinicians integrate this information into their clinical databases by emphasizing the similarities among these organisms. Relevant English-language articles published between 1988 and 1995 were identified through a MEDLINE search done using the names of the intestinal spore-forming protozoa. Articles cited in the bibliographies of these and other articles were searched manually. Studies that contained information on the history, taxonomy, life cycle, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of the pathogens were reviewed. Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Septata intestinalis are intestinal spore-forming protozoa that cause intracellular infections, predominantly in the epithelial cells of the intestine. They are transmitted either by stool from person to person or through contaminated water or food by an infectious particle called a spore or oocyst. Asymptomatic infections occur; the most common symptom of infection is diarrhea. Infections have been associated with intestinal inflammation, disordered architecture (such as villus blunting), and abnormal function (for example, malabsorption). Mild to moderate, self-limited diarrhea is common in healthy persons, but patients with immune dysfunction can have severe intestinal injury and prolonged diarrhea. Diagnosis is made by a microscopic examination of the stool and the use of appropriate staining techniques. Effective antibiotic treatment for prolonged infection in immunocompromised patients is available for most of these infections. The intestinal spore-forming protozoa are four frequently identified gastrointestinal pathogens that have important similarities in epidemiology, disease pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.
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              Cryptosporidiosis in patients with AIDS: correlates of disease and survival.

              Although 10%-15% of patients with AIDS in the United States may acquire cryptosporidium infection, little data exist on clinical or histological characteristics that differentiate clinical outcomes. A case-control study of 83 HIV-positive adult patients with cryptosporidiosis was conducted, as was a histopathologic review of data on gastrointestinal biopsy specimens from 30 patients. Four clinical syndromes were identified: chronic diarrhea (36% of patients), choleralike disease (33%), transient diarrhea (15%), and relapsing illness (15%). A multivariate analysis of data for cases and controls revealed that acquiring cryptosporidiosis was associated with the presence of candidal esophagitis (odds ratio [OR], 2.53; P < .002) and Caucasian race (OR, 6.71; P = .0001) but not with sexual orientation. Cases had a significantly shorter duration of survival from the time of diagnosis than did controls (240 vs. 666 days, respectively; P = .0004), which was independent of sex, race, or or injection drug use. Antiretroviral use was protective against disease (OR, 0.072; P = .0001). All four clinical syndromes were represented among the histological data. There was no statistically significant correlation between histological intensity of infection and clinical severity of illness.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rsvm
                Revista de la Sociedad Venezolana de Microbiología
                Rev. Soc. Ven. Microbiol.
                Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Venezolana de Microbiología. (Caracas, DF, Venezuela )
                1315-2556
                June 2010
                : 30
                : 1
                : 61-64
                Affiliations
                [01] Bolívar Bolívar orgnameUniversidad de Oriente orgdiv1Departamento de Parasitología y Microbiología orgdiv2Escuela de Ciencias de la Salud Venezuela
                Article
                S1315-25562010000100012 S1315-2556(10)03000112
                deec11d7-f1c9-4b14-8f13-6a82a6295eda

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                : 16 November 2009
                : 01 April 2010
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 27, Pages: 4
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela


                Cryptosporidium,Coccidios intestinales,pre-escolares,Intestinal coccidian,preschool children

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