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      Osimertinib or Platinum–Pemetrexed in EGFR T790M–Positive Lung Cancer

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          Abstract

          Background Osimertinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that is selective for both EGFR-TKI sensitizing and T790M resistance mutations in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. The efficacy of osimertinib as compared with platinum-based therapy plus pemetrexed in such patients is unknown. Methods In this randomized, international, open-label, phase 3 trial, we assigned 419 patients with T790M-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, who had disease progression after first-line EGFR-TKI therapy, in a 2:1 ratio to receive either oral osimertinib (at a dose of 80 mg once daily) or intravenous pemetrexed (500 mg per square meter of body-surface area) plus either carboplatin (target area under the curve, 5 [AUC5]) or cisplatin (75 mg per square meter) every 3 weeks for up to six cycles; maintenance pemetrexed was allowed. In all the patients, disease had progressed during receipt of first-line EGFR-TKI therapy. The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival. Results The median duration of progression-free survival was significantly longer with osimertinib than with platinum therapy plus pemetrexed (10.1 months vs. 4.4 months; hazard ratio; 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23 to 0.41; P<0.001). The objective response rate was significantly better with osimertinib (71%; 95% CI, 65 to 76) than with platinum therapy plus pemetrexed (31%; 95% CI, 24 to 40) (odds ratio for objective response, 5.39; 95% CI, 3.47 to 8.48; P<0.001). Among 144 patients with metastases to the central nervous system (CNS), the median duration of progression-free survival was longer among patients receiving osimertinib than among those receiving platinum therapy plus pemetrexed (8.5 months vs. 4.2 months; hazard ratio, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.49). The proportion of patients with adverse events of grade 3 or higher was lower with osimertinib (23%) than with platinum therapy plus pemetrexed (47%). Conclusions Osimertinib had significantly greater efficacy than platinum therapy plus pemetrexed in patients with T790M-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (including those with CNS metastases) in whom disease had progressed during first-line EGFR-TKI therapy. (Funded by AstraZeneca; AURA3 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02151981 .).

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          Most cited references 7

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          Acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in EGFR-mutant lung cancer: distinct natural history of patients with tumors harboring the T790M mutation.

          Patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant lung adenocarcinoma develop acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) after a median of 10 to 16 months. In half of these cases, a second EGFR mutation, T790M, underlies acquired resistance. We undertook this study to examine the clinical course of patients harboring the T790M mutation following progression on TKI. EGFR-mutant lung cancer patients with acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs were identified as part of a prospective rebiopsy protocol in which postprogression tumor specimens were collected for molecular analysis. Postprogression survival and characteristics of disease progression were compared in patients with and without T790M. We identified T790M in the initial rebiopsy specimens from 58 of 93 patients (62%, 95% CI: 52-72). T790M was more common in biopsies of lung/pleura tissue and lymph nodes than in more distant sites (P = 0.014). Median postprogression survival was 16 months (interquartile range = 9-29 months); patients with T790M had a significantly longer postprogression survival (P = 0.036). Patients without T790M more often progressed in a previously uninvolved organ system (P = 0.014) and exhibited a poorer performance status at time of progression (P = 0.007). Among patients with acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs, the presence of T790M defines a clinical subset with a relatively favorable prognosis and more indolent progression. Knowledge of T790M status is therefore important both for the clinical care of these patients and for the optimal design and interpretation of clinical trials in this setting. ©2010 AACR.
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            Systemic Therapy for Stage IV Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Update.

            To provide evidence-based recommendations to update the American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline on systemic therapy for stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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              Preclinical Comparison of Osimertinib with Other EGFR-TKIs in EGFR-Mutant NSCLC Brain Metastases Models, and Early Evidence of Clinical Brain Metastases Activity.

              Approximately one-third of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring tumors with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-sensitizing mutations (EGFRm) experience disease progression during treatment due to brain metastases. Despite anecdotal reports of EGFR-TKIs providing benefit in some patients with EGFRm NSCLC brain metastases, there is a clinical need for novel EGFR-TKIs with improved efficacy against brain lesions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                February 16 2017
                February 16 2017
                : 376
                : 7
                : 629-640
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMoa1612674
                27959700
                © 2017
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