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      Comparative study of interhemispheric functional connectivity in left eye monocular blindness versus right eye monocular blindness: a resting-state functional MRI study

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          Abstract

          Objective

          In the present study, we investigated the brain interhemispheric functional connectivity changes in left eye MB versus right eye MB patients by voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) methods.

          Methods

          A total of 31 patients with MB (15 with left eye MB and 16 with right eye MB), and 31 healthy controls (HCs) closely matched for age were recruited. All subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examinations. The VMHC method was used to evaluate directly functional interactions between the hemispheres. A one-way ANOVA was performed to determine the regions in which the VMHC differs between the three groups. Patients with MB were distinguished from HCs by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The relationships between the mean VMHC signal values in many brain regions and clinical features in MB patients were calculated by pearson correlation analysis.

          Results

          Compared with HCs, MB patients had significantly decreased VMHC values in the cuneus/calcarine/lingual gyrus. Furthermore, left eye MB showed decreased VMHC values in the cuneus/calcarine/lingual gyrus and showed increased VMHC values in the insula and middle frontal gyrus compared with HC. In addition, right eye MB showed decreased VMHC values in the cuneus/calcarine/lingual gyrus, primary motor cortex (M1)/primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and superior parietal lobule.

          Conclusion

          MB subjects showed abnormal brain interhemispheric functional connectivity in visual pathways. Furthermore, different patterns of brain interhemispheric functional connectivity occurred in the left eye and right eye MB. These VMHC values provide much useful information to explain the neural mechanism changes in MB.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Growing together and growing apart: regional and sex differences in the lifespan developmental trajectories of functional homotopy.

          Functional homotopy, the high degree of synchrony in spontaneous activity between geometrically corresponding interhemispheric (i.e., homotopic) regions, is a fundamental characteristic of the intrinsic functional architecture of the brain. However, despite its prominence, the lifespan development of the homotopic resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the human brain is rarely directly examined in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Here, we systematically investigated age-related changes in homotopic RSFC in 214 healthy individuals ranging in age from 7 to 85 years. We observed marked age-related changes in homotopic RSFC with regionally specific developmental trajectories of varying levels of complexity. Sensorimotor regions tended to show increasing homotopic RSFC, whereas higher-order processing regions showed decreasing connectivity (i.e., increasing segregation) with age. More complex maturational curves were also detected, with regions such as the insula and lingual gyrus exhibiting quadratic trajectories and the superior frontal gyrus and putamen exhibiting cubic trajectories. Sex-related differences in the developmental trajectory of functional homotopy were detected within dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 9 and 46) and amygdala. Evidence of robust developmental effects in homotopic RSFC across the lifespan should serve to motivate studies of the physiological mechanisms underlying functional homotopy in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders.
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            Sparse coding and decorrelation in primary visual cortex during natural vision.

            Theoretical studies suggest that primary visual cortex (area V1) uses a sparse code to efficiently represent natural scenes. This issue was investigated by recording from V1 neurons in awake behaving macaques during both free viewing of natural scenes and conditions simulating natural vision. Stimulation of the nonclassical receptive field increases the selectivity and sparseness of individual V1 neurons, increases the sparseness of the population response distribution, and strongly decorrelates the responses of neuron pairs. These effects are due to both excitatory and suppressive modulation of the classical receptive field by the nonclassical receptive field and do not depend critically on the spatiotemporal structure of the stimuli. During natural vision, the classical and nonclassical receptive fields function together to form a sparse representation of the visual world. This sparse code may be computationally efficient for both early vision and higher visual processing.
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              Muscle and movement representations in the primary motor cortex.

              What aspects of movement are represented in the primary motor cortex (M1): relatively low-level parameters like muscle force, or more abstract parameters like handpath? To examine this issue, the activity of neurons in M1 was recorded in a monkey trained to perform a task that dissociates three major variables of wrist movement: muscle activity, direction of movement at the wrist joint, and direction of movement in space. A substantial group of neurons in M1 (28 out of 88) displayed changes in activity that were muscle-like. Unexpectedly, an even larger group of neurons in M1 (44 out of 88) displayed changes in activity that were related to the direction of wrist movement in space independent of the pattern of muscle activity that generated the movement. Thus, both "muscles" and "movements" appear to be strongly represented in M1.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                ImpactJ
                Oncotarget
                Impact Journals LLC
                1949-2553
                6 March 2018
                14 February 2018
                : 9
                : 18
                : 14285-14295
                Affiliations
                1 Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006, Jiangxi, China
                2 Department of Ophthalmology, The People's Hospital of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430060, Hubei, China
                3 Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006, Jiangxi, China
                4 University of Miami, Miami, Florida 33146, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Qiong Zhou, 375135747@ 123456qq.com
                Article
                24487
                10.18632/oncotarget.24487
                5865669
                Copyright: © 2018 Shao et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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                Research Paper

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