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      Effects of Treatment with Epoetin Beta on Outcomes in Patients with Anaemia and Chronic Heart Failure

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          Abstract

          Anaemia is frequently found in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and has been associated with an increase in mortality and morbidity, impaired cardiac and renal function and a reduced quality of life (QoL) compared with non-anaemic CHF patients. Correction of anaemia with recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin) has been associated with an improvement in CHF in both controlled and uncontrolled studies. The present study describes our findings in a series of 78 consecutive patients with symptomatic CHF and anaemia (haemoglobin (Hb) level <12.0 g/dl) treated with epoetin beta and, if necessary, intravenous iron sucrose. Over a mean observation period of 20.7 ± 12.1 months, mean Hb levels increased from 10.2 ± 1.1 to 13.5 ± 1.2 g/dl, p < 0.01. New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were significantly improved and the number of hospitalizations was significantly reduced with the period before treatment (all p < 0.01). Serum creatinine and creatinine clearance (CCr) were 2.2 ± 0.9 mg/dl and 32.5 ± 26.5 ml/min, respectively, at baseline, and remained stable over the observation period. Interestingly, >90% of the patients had concomitant mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease at baseline and study end (CKD), as defined by the accepted diagnostic criterion of a CCr <60 ml/min. Conclusions: The correction of the anaemia with epoetin beta together with initial intravenous iron supplementation, resulted in significant improvements in NYHA class and cardiac function, and a reduction in hospitalization rate. Moreover, renal function was maintained stable in most patients.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Incidence, predictors at admission, and impact of worsening renal function among patients hospitalized with heart failure.

          The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of worsening renal function (WRF) among hospitalized heart failure (HF) patients, clinical predictors of WRF, and hospital outcomes associated with WRF. Impaired renal function is associated with poor outcomes among chronic HF patients. Chart reviews were performed on 1,004 consecutive patients admitted for a primary diagnosis of HF from 11 geographically diverse hospitals. Cox regression model analysis was used to identify independent predictors for WRF, defined as a rise in serum creatinine of >0.3 mg/dl (26.5 micromol/l). Bivariate analysis was used to determine associations of development of WRF with outcomes (in-hospital death, in-hospital complications, and length of stay). Among 1,004 HF patients studied, WRF developed in 27%. In the majority of cases, WRF occurred within three days of admission. History of HF or diabetes mellitus, admission creatinine > or =1.5 mg/dl (132.6 micromol/l), and systolic blood pressure >160 mm Hg were independently associated with higher risk of WRF. A point score based on these characteristics and their relative risk ratios predicted those at risk for WRF. Hospital deaths (adjusted risk ratio [ARR] 7.5; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.9, 19.3), complications (ARR 2.1; CI 1.5, 3.0), and length of hospitalizations >10 days (ARR 3.2, CI 2.2, 4.9) were greater among patients with WRF. Worsening renal function occurs frequently among hospitalized HF patients and is associated with significantly worse outcomes. Clinical characteristics available at hospital admission can be used to identify patients at increased risk for developing WRF.
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            The use of subcutaneous erythropoietin and intravenous iron for the treatment of the anemia of severe, resistant congestive heart failure improves cardiac and renal function and functional cardiac class, and markedly reduces hospitalizations.

            This study evaluated the prevalence and severity of anemia in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and the effect of its correction on cardiac and renal function and hospitalization. The prevalence and significance of mild anemia in patients with CHF is uncertain, and the role of erythropoietin with intravenous iron supplementation in treating this anemia is unknown. In a retrospective study, the records of the 142 patients in our CHF clinic were reviewed to find the prevalence and severity of anemia (hemoglobin [Hb] <12 g). In an intervention study, 26 of these patients, despite maximally tolerated therapy of CHF for at least six months, still had had severe CHF and were also anemic. They were treated with subcutaneous erythropoietin and intravenous iron sufficient to increase the Hb to 12 g%. The doses of the CHF medications, except for diuretics, were not changed during the intervention period. The prevalence of anemia in the 142 patients increased with the severity of CHF, reaching 79.1% in those with New York Heart Association class IV. In the intervention study, the anemia of the 26 patients was treated for a mean of 7.2 +/- 5.5 months. The mean Hb level and mean left ventricular ejection fraction increased significantly. The mean number of hospitalizations fell by 91.9% compared with a similar period before the study. The New York Heart Association class fell significantly, as did the doses of oral and intravenous furosemide. The rate of fall of the glomerular filtration rate slowed with the treatment. Anemia is very common in CHF and its successful treatment is associated with a significant improvement in cardiac function, functional class, renal function and in a marked fall in the need for diuretics and hospitalization.
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              Relationship between heart failure treatment and development of worsening renal function among hospitalized patients.

              Among patients who are hospitalized with heart failure (HF), worsening renal function (WRF) is associated with worse outcomes. Whether treatment for HF contributes to WRF is unknown. In this study, we sought to assess whether acute treatment for patients who were hospitalized with HF contributes to WRF. Data were collected in a nested case-control study on 382 subjects who were hospitalized with HF (191 patients with WRF, defined as a rise in serum creatinine level >26.5 micromol/L [0.3 mg/dL], and 191 control subjects). The association of medications, fluid intake/output, and weight with WRF was assessed. Calcium channel blocker (CCB) use and loop diuretic doses were higher in patients on the day before WRF (25% vs 10% for CCB; 199 +/- 195 mg vs 143 +/- 119 mg for loop diuretics; both P <.05). There were no significant differences in the fluid intake/output or weight changes in the 2 groups. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use was not associated with WRF. Other predictors of WRF included elevated creatinine level at admission, uncontrolled hypertension, and history of HF or diabetes mellitus. Higher hematocrit levels were associated with a lower risk. Vasodilator use was higher among patients on the day before WRF (46% vs 35%, P <.05), but was not an independent predictor in the multivariable analysis. Several medical strategies, including the use of CCBs and a higher dose of loop diuretics, but not ACE inhibitors, were associated with a higher risk of WRF. Although assessment of inhospital diuresis was limited, WRF could not be explained by greater fluid loss in these patients. Determining whether these interventions are responsible for WRF or are markers of higher risk requires further investigation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2005
                December 2004
                11 January 2005
                : 28
                : 1
                : 41-47
                Affiliations
                Departments of aNephrology, bCardiology and Heart Failure Clinic, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel, cI. Medical Clinic, Klinikum Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany and Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Basel, Switzerland
                Article
                81621 Kidney Blood Press Res 2005;28:41–47
                10.1159/000081621
                15489560
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 4, References: 36, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/81621
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Anaemia, Chronic renal failure, Iron, Erythropoietin, Heart failure

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