Grass carp is an important aquaculture fish species in China that is affected by severe diseases, especially haemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV). However, the mechanisms of GCRV invasion and infection remain to be elucidated. In the present study, Ctenopharyngodon idellus kidney (CIK) cells were infected with GCRV, harvested at 0, 8, 24, and 72 h post infection, respectively, and then subjected to transcriptomics sequencing. Each sample yielded more than 6 Gb of clean data and 40 million clean reads. To better understand GCRV infection, the process was divided into three phases: the early (0–8 h post infection), middle (8–24 h post infection), and late (24–72 h) stages of infection. A total of 76 (35 up-regulated, 41 down-regulated), 553 (463 up-regulated, 90 down-regulated), and 284 (150 up-regulated, 134 down-regulated) differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified during the early, middle, and late stages of infection, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis revealed that DEGs were mainly involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis, transport, and endocytosis in the early stage, phagocytosis and lysosome pathways were mainly enriched in the middle stage, and programmed cell death, apoptosis, and inflammation were largely associated with the late stage. These results suggest GCRV infection is a gradual process involving adsorption on the cell surface, followed by endocytosis into cells, transport by lysosomes, and eventually resulted in cell necrosis and/or apoptosis. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of grass carp reovirus infection.