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      Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides


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          Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs), gluco- and galactosyl-ceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry. Nuclear magnetic resonance has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as high-performance thin layer chromatography and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus fumigatus , and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH) analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional thin layer chromatography and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by secondary ion mass spectrometry and imaging matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight.

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              Quantitative Determination of Monosaccharides as Their Alditol Acetates by Gas Liquid Chromatography.


                Author and article information

                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbio.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Research Foundation
                05 December 2011
                : 2
                [1] 1Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
                [2] 2Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Paraná Curitiba, Brazil
                Author notes

                Edited by: Marcio Rodrigues, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

                Reviewed by: Karin Thevissen, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium; Steven Bruce Levery, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

                *Correspondence: Eliana Barreto-Bergter, Instituto de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida Carlos Chagas Filho, 373, Bloco I, 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. e-mail: eliana.bergter@ 123456micro.ufrj.br

                This article was submitted to Frontiers in Fungi and Their Interactions, a specialty of Frontiers in Microbiology.

                Copyright © 2011 Barreto-Bergter, Sassaki and de Souza.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License, which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 76, Pages: 11, Words: 7422
                Review Article


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