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      Quercetin Alleviates Intestinal Oxidative Damage Induced by H 2O 2 via Modulation of GSH: In Vitro Screening and In Vivo Evaluation in a Colitis Model of Mice

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          Abstract

          The gastrointestinal tract is exposed to pro-oxidants from food, host immune factors, and microbial pathogens, which may induce oxidative damage. Oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the onset of inflammatory bowel disease. This study aimed to use a novel model to evaluate the effects of a screened natural component and explore its possible mechanism. An in vitro oxidative stress Caco2 cell model induced by H 2O 2 was established using a real-time cellular analysis system and verified by addition of glutathione (GSH). A variety of plant components were chosen for the screening. Quercetin was the most effective phytochemical to alleviate the decreased cell index caused by H 2O 2 among the tested plant components. Furthermore, quercetin ameliorated dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS)-induced colitis and further increased the serum GSH. The mechanism of quercetin protection was explored in Caco2. Reversed H 2O 2-induced cell damage and decreased reactive oxygen species and apoptosis ratio were observed in quercetin-treated cells. Also, quercetin increased expression of the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), the first rate-limiting enzyme of glutathione synthesis, and increased intracellular GSH concentration under H 2O 2 treatment. This effect was abolished by the GCLC inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine. These results indicated that quercetin can improve cell proliferation and increase intracellular GSH concentrations by upregulating transcription of GCLC to eliminate excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased extracellular H 2O 2 concentration induced by quercetin under oxidative stress was related to the inhibition of AQP3 and upregulation of NOX1/2, which may contribute to the observed protective effects of quercetin. Moreover, the novel H 2O 2-induced oxidative stress cell model based on the real-time cellular analysis system was an effective model to screen natural products to deal with intestinal oxidative damage and help accelerate the discovery of new drugs for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

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          Most cited references 47

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          Antioxidant responses and cellular adjustments to oxidative stress

          Redox biological reactions are now accepted to bear the Janus faceted feature of promoting both physiological signaling responses and pathophysiological cues. Endogenous antioxidant molecules participate in both scenarios. This review focuses on the role of crucial cellular nucleophiles, such as glutathione, and their capacity to interact with oxidants and to establish networks with other critical enzymes such as peroxiredoxins. We discuss the importance of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway as an example of a transcriptional antioxidant response and we summarize transcriptional routes related to redox activation. As examples of pathophysiological cellular and tissular settings where antioxidant responses are major players we highlight endoplasmic reticulum stress and ischemia reperfusion. Topologically confined redox-mediated post-translational modifications of thiols are considered important molecular mechanisms mediating many antioxidant responses, whereas redox-sensitive microRNAs have emerged as key players in the posttranscriptional regulation of redox-mediated gene expression. Understanding such mechanisms may provide the basis for antioxidant-based therapeutic interventions in redox-related diseases.
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            Aquaporin-3 mediates hydrogen peroxide uptake to regulate downstream intracellular signaling.

            Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) produced by cell-surface NADPH Oxidase (Nox) enzymes is emerging as an important signaling molecule for growth, differentiation, and migration processes. However, how cells spatially regulate H(2)O(2) to achieve physiological redox signaling over nonspecific oxidative stress pathways is insufficiently understood. Here we report that the water channel Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) can facilitate the uptake of H(2)O(2) into mammalian cells and mediate downstream intracellular signaling. Molecular imaging with Peroxy Yellow 1 Methyl-Ester (PY1-ME), a new chemoselective fluorescent indicator for H(2)O(2), directly demonstrates that aquaporin isoforms AQP3 and AQP8, but not AQP1, can promote uptake of H(2)O(2) specifically through membranes in mammalian cells. Moreover, we show that intracellular H(2)O(2) accumulation can be modulated up or down based on endogenous AQP3 expression, which in turn can influence downstream cell signaling cascades. Finally, we establish that AQP3 is required for Nox-derived H(2)O(2) signaling upon growth factor stimulation. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the downstream intracellular effects of H(2)O(2) can be regulated across biological barriers, a discovery that has broad implications for the controlled use of this potentially toxic small molecule for beneficial physiological functions.
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              Review article: the role of oxidative stress in pathogenesis and treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases

              In this review, we focus on the role of oxidative stress in the aetiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and colitis-associated colorectal cancer and discuss free radicals and free radical-stimulated pathways as pharmacological targets for anti-IBD drugs. We also suggest novel anti-oxidative agents, which may become effective and less-toxic alternatives in IBD and colitis-associated colorectal cancer treatment. A Medline search was performed to identify relevant bibliography using search terms including: ‘free radicals,’ ‘antioxidants,’ ‘oxidative stress,’ ‘colon cancer,’ ‘ulcerative colitis,’ ‘Crohn’s disease,’ ‘inflammatory bowel disease.’ Several therapeutics commonly used in IBD treatment, among which are immunosuppressants, corticosteroids and anti-TNF-α antibodies, could also affect the IBD progression by interfering with cellular oxidative stress and cytokine production. Experimental data shows that these drugs may effectively scavenge free radicals, increase anti-oxidative capacity of cells, influence multiple signalling pathways, e.g. MAPK and NF-kB, and inhibit pro-oxidative enzyme and cytokine concentration. However, their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effectiveness still needs further investigation. A highly specific antioxidative activity may be important for the clinical treatment and relapse of IBD. In the future, a combination of currently used pharmaceutics, together with natural and synthetic anti-oxidative compounds, like lipoic acid or curcumine, could be taken into account in the design of novel anti-IBD therapies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ACS Omega
                ACS Omega
                ao
                acsodf
                ACS Omega
                American Chemical Society
                2470-1343
                02 April 2020
                14 April 2020
                : 5
                : 14
                : 8334-8346
                Affiliations
                []State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University , Beijing 100193, China
                []Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign , 1207 W. Gregory Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States
                Author notes
                Article
                10.1021/acsomega.0c00804
                7161027
                Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society

                This is an open access article published under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the author and source are cited.

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