The gastrointestinal tract is exposed to pro-oxidants from food, host immune factors, and microbial pathogens, which may induce oxidative damage. Oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the onset of inflammatory bowel disease. This study aimed to use a novel model to evaluate the effects of a screened natural component and explore its possible mechanism. An in vitro oxidative stress Caco2 cell model induced by H 2O 2 was established using a real-time cellular analysis system and verified by addition of glutathione (GSH). A variety of plant components were chosen for the screening. Quercetin was the most effective phytochemical to alleviate the decreased cell index caused by H 2O 2 among the tested plant components. Furthermore, quercetin ameliorated dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS)-induced colitis and further increased the serum GSH. The mechanism of quercetin protection was explored in Caco2. Reversed H 2O 2-induced cell damage and decreased reactive oxygen species and apoptosis ratio were observed in quercetin-treated cells. Also, quercetin increased expression of the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), the first rate-limiting enzyme of glutathione synthesis, and increased intracellular GSH concentration under H 2O 2 treatment. This effect was abolished by the GCLC inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine. These results indicated that quercetin can improve cell proliferation and increase intracellular GSH concentrations by upregulating transcription of GCLC to eliminate excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased extracellular H 2O 2 concentration induced by quercetin under oxidative stress was related to the inhibition of AQP3 and upregulation of NOX1/2, which may contribute to the observed protective effects of quercetin. Moreover, the novel H 2O 2-induced oxidative stress cell model based on the real-time cellular analysis system was an effective model to screen natural products to deal with intestinal oxidative damage and help accelerate the discovery of new drugs for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).