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      Fumigant Toxicity and Oviposition Deterrent Activity of Volatile Constituents from Asari Radix et Rhizoma against Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

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          Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) is a worldwide pest of potato. Plant-borne chemicals would be potential alternatives of synthetic chemical fumigants against P. operculella in the storage. Asari Radix et Rhizoma is derived from the dry roots and rhizomes of Asarum heterotropoides Fr. Schmidt var. mandshuricum, A. sieboldii Miq. var. seoulense, or A. sieboldii. In this study, fumigant toxicity and oviposition deterrent of volatile constituents from ARR, δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene, terpinolene, eucarvone, 3,5-dimethoxytoluene, and methyleugenol were tested against P. operculella. The preliminary verification of preventive and control effects of eucarvone, 3,5-dimethoxytoluene and methyleugenol on P. operculella was carried out by simulating warehouse experiments. The results indicated that the six compounds above had fumigation toxic effects on the adults and eggs of P. operculella. Among them, δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene, and terpinolene had weaker fumigation effects than those of eucarvone, 3,5-dimethoxytoluene, and methyleugenol. The LC 50 values of eucarvone, 3,5-dimethoxytoluene, and methyleugenol against adult P. operculella were 1.01, 1.78, 1.51 mg/liter air, respectively. The LC 50 values against egg P. operculella were 1.09, 0.55, 0.30 mg/liter air, respectively. The oviposition deterrent experiment showed that only methyleugenol (at 5 and 1 mg/ml) and eucarvone (5 mg/ml) had a substantial oviposition deterrent effect. The simulated warehouse experiment verified that methyleugenol, eucarvone, and 3,5-dimethoxytoluene protected potatoes from P. operculella and demonstrated that methyleugenol had the best preventive and control effects. It was concluded that methyleugenol was the active ingredient with the most potential in the volatiles from ARR on P. operculella control and merit further study as botanic fumigant.

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          Most cited references 48

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          Plant products as fumigants for stored-product insect control

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            Essential oils in insect control: low-risk products in a high-stakes world.

            In recent years, the use of essential oils (EOs) derived from aromatic plants as low-risk insecticides has increased considerably owing to their popularity with organic growers and environmentally conscious consumers. EOs are easily produced by steam distillation of plant material and contain many volatile, low-molecular-weight terpenes and phenolics. The major plant families from which EOs are extracted include Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Lamiaceae, and Asteraceae. EOs have repellent, insecticidal, and growth-reducing effects on a variety of insects. They have been used effectively to control preharvest and postharvest phytophagous insects and as insect repellents for biting flies and for home and garden insects. The compounds exert their activities on insects through neurotoxic effects involving several mechanisms, notably through GABA, octopamine synapses, and the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. With a few exceptions, their mammalian toxicity is low and environmental persistence is short. Registration has been the main bottleneck in putting new products on the market, but more EOs have been approved for use in the United States than elsewhere owing to reduced-risk processes for these materials. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
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              Larvicidal activity of compounds isolated from Asarum heterotropoides against Culex pipiens pallens, Aedes aegypti, and Ochlerotatus togoi (Diptera: Culicidae).

              The toxicity of several compounds isolated from Asarum heterotropoides root steam distillate to third-instar larvae of Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett, Aedes aegypti (L.), and Ochlerotatus togoi Theobald was examined using a direct contact mortality bioassay. Safrole was the most toxic constituent to Cx. p. pallens and Ae. aegypti larvae, whereas terpinolene was most toxic to Oc. togoi. However, LC50 values of these three mosquito larvae to both essential oils as well as the remainder of the 26 compounds identified in A. heterotropoides were considerably greater than for fenthion or temephos. However, we suggest that constituents of A. heterotropoides root steam distillate merit further study as potential mosquito larvicides due to global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic pesticides in the aquatic environment.

                Author and article information

                Role: Subject Editor
                J Insect Sci
                J Insect Sci
                Journal of Insect Science
                Oxford University Press (US )
                November 2020
                11 December 2020
                11 December 2020
                : 20
                : 6
                [1 ] Plant Protection College, Yunnan Agricultural University , Kunming, China
                [2 ] School of Chinese Material Medica, Yunnan University of Chinese Medicine , Kunming, China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author, e-mail: x.chun@ 123456163.com

                These authors have contributed equally to this work.

                © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Pages: 6
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China, DOI 10.13039/501100001809;
                Award ID: 31560607
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