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      A Critical Appraisal of the Phenomenon of Aspirin Resistance

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          Abstract

          Aspirin is the mainstay antiplatelet treatment in patients with high risk of cardiovascular atherothrombotic events, and its beneficial effect is documented in several clinical trials. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of aspirin has been questioned by the emergence of the concept of ‘aspirin resistance’ (AR). This phenomenon, although lacking a precise definition, covers the fact that some patients do not exhibit the expected platelet inhibition by use of various techniques for measuring platelet function. In this critical review, we evaluate the methods used for measuring AR. We will discuss the available data regarding the prevalence and the clinical importance of the phenomenon. Finally, the potential mechanisms underlying AR are considered.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Aspirin-resistant thromboxane biosynthesis and the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death in patients at high risk for cardiovascular events.

          We studied whether aspirin resistance, defined as failure of suppression of thromboxane generation, increases the risk of cardiovascular events in a high-risk population. Baseline urine samples were obtained from 5529 Canadian patients enrolled in the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) Study. Using a nested case-control design, we measured urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 levels, a marker of in vivo thromboxane generation, in 488 cases treated with aspirin who had myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death during 5 years of follow-up and in 488 sex- and age-matched control subjects also receiving aspirin who did not have an event. After adjustment for baseline differences, the odds for the composite outcome of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death increased with each increasing quartile of 11-dehydro thromboxane B2, with patients in the upper quartile having a 1.8-times-higher risk than those in the lower quartile (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.7; P=0.009). Those in the upper quartile had a 2-times-higher risk of myocardial infarction (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.4; P=0.006) and a 3.5-times-higher risk of cardiovascular death (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.7 to 7.4; P<0.001) than those in the lower quartile. In aspirin-treated patients, urinary concentrations of 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 predict the future risk of myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death. These findings raise the possibility that elevated urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 levels identify patients who are relatively resistant to aspirin and who may benefit from additional antiplatelet therapies or treatments that more effectively block in vivo thromboxane production or activity.
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            A prospective, blinded determination of the natural history of aspirin resistance among stable patients with cardiovascular disease.

            This study was designed to determine if aspirin resistance is associated with clinical events. Aspirin resistance, defined by platelet function testing and presumed clinical unresponsiveness to aspirin, has been previously reported by our group and others. However, little information exists linking the laboratory documentation of aspirin resistance and long-term clinical events. We prospectively enrolled 326 stable cardiovascular patients from 1997 to 1999 on aspirin (325 mg/day for > or =7 days) and no other antiplatelet agents. We tested for aspirin sensitivity by optical platelet aggregation using adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and arachidonic acid (AA). The primary outcome was the composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Mean follow-up was 679 +/- 185 days. Aspirin resistance was defined as a mean aggregation of > or =70% with 10 microM ADP and > or =20% with 0.5 mg/ml AA. Of the patients studied, 17 (5.2%) were aspirin resistant and 309 (94.8%) were not aspirin resistant. During follow-up, aspirin resistance was associated with an increased risk of death, MI, or CVA compared with patients who were aspirin sensitive (24% vs. 10%, hazard ratio [HR] 3.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10 to 8.90, p = 0.03). Stratified multivariate analyses identified platelet count, age, heart failure, and aspirin resistance to be independently associated with major adverse long-term outcomes (HR for aspirin resistance 4.14, 95% CI 1.42 to 12.06, p = 0.009). This study demonstrates the natural history of aspirin resistance in a stable population, documenting a greater than threefold increase in the risk of major adverse events associated with aspirin resistance.
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              Profile and prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with cardiovascular disease.

              We determined the prevalence and clinical predictors of aspirin resistance by prospectively studying 325 patients with stable cardiovascular disease who were receiving aspirin (325 mg/day for > or =7 days) but no other antiplatelet agents. We also compared the detection of aspirin resistance with optical platelet aggregation, a widely accepted method, with a newer, more rapid method, the platelet function analyzer (PFA)-100, a whole blood test that measures platelet adhesion and aggregation ex vivo. Blood samples were analyzed in a blinded fashion for aspirin resistance by optical aggregation using adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and arachidonic acid, and by PFA-100 using collagen and/or epinephrine and collagen and/or ADP cartridges to measure aperture closure time. Aspirin resistance was defined as a mean aggregation of > or =70% with 10 microM ADP and a mean aggregation of > or =20% with 0.5 mg/ml arachidonic acid. Aspirin semiresponders were defined as meeting one, but not both of the above criteria. Aspirin resistance by PFA-100 was defined as having a normal collagen and/or epinephrine closure time (< or =193 seconds). By optical aggregation, 5.5% of the patients were aspirin resistant and 23.8% were aspirin semiresponders. By PFA-100, 9.5% of patients were aspirin resistant. Of the 18 patients who were aspirin resistant by aggregation, 4 were also aspirin resistant by PFA-100. Patients who were either aspirin resistant or aspirin semiresponders were more likely to be women (34.4% vs 17.3%, p = 0.001) and less likely to be smokers (0% vs 8.3%, p = 0.004) compared with aspirin-sensitive patients. There was a trend toward increased age in patients with aspirin resistance or aspirin semiresponders (65.7 vs 61.3 years, p = 0.06). There were no differences in aspirin sensitivity by race, diabetes, platelet count, renal disease, or liver disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2005
                August 2005
                24 August 2005
                : 104
                : 2
                : 83-91
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Cardiology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; bDepartment of Clinical Biochemistry, Center of Cardiovascular Research, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; cDivision of Cardiology, Aker University Hospital, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
                Article
                86690 Cardiology 2005;104:83–91
                10.1159/000086690
                16020925
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 39, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Review Article

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