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Configuration of the magnetosome chain: a natural magnetic nanoarchitecture

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      Abstract

      Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense is a microorganism with the ability to biomineralize magnetite nanoparticles, called magnetosomes, and arrange them into a chain that behaves like a magnetic compass.

      Abstract

      Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense is a microorganism with the ability to biomineralize magnetite nanoparticles, called magnetosomes, and arrange them into a chain that behaves like a magnetic compass. Rather than straight lines, magnetosome chains are slightly bent, as evidenced by electron cryotomography. Our experimental and theoretical results suggest that due to the competition between the magnetocrystalline and shape anisotropies, the effective magnetic moment of individual magnetosomes is tilted out of the [111] crystallographic easy axis of magnetite. This tilt does not affect the direction of the chain net magnetic moment, which remains along the [111] axis, but explains the arrangement of magnetosomes in helical-like shaped chains. Indeed, we demonstrate that the chain shape can be reproduced by considering an interplay between the magnetic dipolar interactions between magnetosomes, ruled by the orientation of the magnetosome magnetic moment, and a lipid/protein-based mechanism, modeled as an elastic recovery force exerted on the magnetosomes.

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      UCSF Chimera--a visualization system for exploratory research and analysis.

      The design, implementation, and capabilities of an extensible visualization system, UCSF Chimera, are discussed. Chimera is segmented into a core that provides basic services and visualization, and extensions that provide most higher level functionality. This architecture ensures that the extension mechanism satisfies the demands of outside developers who wish to incorporate new features. Two unusual extensions are presented: Multiscale, which adds the ability to visualize large-scale molecular assemblies such as viral coats, and Collaboratory, which allows researchers to share a Chimera session interactively despite being at separate locales. Other extensions include Multalign Viewer, for showing multiple sequence alignments and associated structures; ViewDock, for screening docked ligand orientations; Movie, for replaying molecular dynamics trajectories; and Volume Viewer, for display and analysis of volumetric data. A discussion of the usage of Chimera in real-world situations is given, along with anticipated future directions. Chimera includes full user documentation, is free to academic and nonprofit users, and is available for Microsoft Windows, Linux, Apple Mac OS X, SGI IRIX, and HP Tru64 Unix from http://www.cgl.ucsf.edu/chimera/. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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        A Mechanism of Magnetic Hysteresis in Heterogeneous Alloys

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          Computer visualization of three-dimensional image data using IMOD.

          We have developed a computer software package, IMOD, as a tool for analyzing and viewing three-dimensional biological image data. IMOD is useful for studying and modeling data from tomographic, serial section, and optical section reconstructions. The software allows image data to be visualized by several different methods. Models of the image data can be visualized by volume or contour surface rendering and can yield quantitative information.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]SGIker
            [2 ]Universidad del País Vasco – UPV/EHU
            [3 ]48940 Leioa
            [4 ]Spain
            [5 ]Dpto. Electricidad y Electrónica
            [6 ]CITIMAC
            [7 ]Universidad de Cantabria
            [8 ]39005 Santander
            [9 ]Dpto. Física Aplicada I
            [10 ]48013 Bilbao
            [11 ]BCMaterials
            [12 ]Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie
            [13 ]12489 Berlin
            [14 ]Germany
            [15 ]Structural Biology Unit
            [16 ]CIC bioGUNE
            [17 ]CIBERehd
            [18 ]48160 Derio
            [19 ]ISIS
            [20 ]STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
            [21 ]Didcot OX11 0QX
            [22 ]UK
            [23 ]Institut Laue-Langevin
            [24 ]38042 Grenoble
            [25 ]France
            [26 ]Basque Center for Materials
            [27 ]Applications and Nanostructures
            Journal
            NANOHL
            Nanoscale
            Nanoscale
            Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
            2040-3364
            2040-3372
            2018
            2018
            : 10
            : 16
            : 7407-7419
            10.1039/C7NR08493E
            © 2018

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

            Product
            Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C7NR08493E

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