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      Androgen Deficiency and Endothelial Dysfunction in Men with End-Stage Kidney Disease Receiving Maintenance Hemodialysis

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          Objectives and Methods: Two thirds of men with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) have serum testosterone levels in the hypogonadal range. We examined if low serum testoster- one levels were correlated with measures of endothelial dysfunction in ESKD. Bilateral common carotid artery (CCA) intima-media thickness (IMT) and atherosclerotic plaque occurrence, left ventricular mass index, flow- (FMD) and nitrate-mediated vasodilatation (NMD) of the brachial artery were determined by ultrasound imaging in 100 nondiabetic men with ESKD (50 men exhibited androgen deficiency; serum testosterone concentrations <300 ng/dl). Results: Left-ventricular mass index, CCA diameter, CCA-IMT and atherosclerotic plaque occurrence were all significantly increased in ESKD patients with androgen deficiency compared with patients without androgen deficiency (p < 0.05). Also, FMD and NMD measurements were significantly reduced in the former compared with the latter (p < 0.05). Testosterone levels were inversely correlated with age and duration of hemodialysis therapy (r = –0.44 and r = –0.55; p < 0.001). Testosterone levels were negatively correlated to CCA-IMT and atherosclerotic plaque occurrence in patients with androgen deficiency (r = –0.32, p < 0.003, and r = –0.23, p < 0.04, respectively). FMD and NMD measurements were positively correlated to total (r = 0.65 and r = 0.61; both p < 0.0001) and free (r = 0.52 and r = 0.48; both p < 0.001) testosterone levels in patients with low androgenicity. Conclusion: The present results indicated that ESKD patients with androgen deficiency had increased CCA-IMT, atherosclerotic plaque occurrence and reduced FMD and NMD compared with patients without androgen deficiency. Testosterone serum levels were negatively correlated to CCA-IMT and positively correlated to endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in ESKD patients with androgen deficiency.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Guidelines for the ultrasound assessment of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery

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            Accelerated atherosclerosis in prolonged maintenance hemodialysis.

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              Passive smoking and impaired endothelium-dependent arterial dilatation in healthy young adults.

              Passive smoking has been linked to an increased risk of dying from atherosclerotic heart disease. Since endothelial dysfunction is an early feature of atherogenesis and occurs in young adults who actively smoke cigarettes, we hypothesized that passive smoking might also be associated with endothelial damage in healthy young-adult nonsmokers. We studied 78 healthy subjects (39 men and 39 women) 15 to 30 years of age (mean +/- SD, 22 +/- 4): 26 control subjects who had never smoked or had regular exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, 26 who had never smoked but had been exposed to environmental tobacco smoke for at least one hour daily for three or more years, and 26 active smokers. Using ultrasonography, we measured the brachial-artery diameter under base-line conditions, during reactive hyperemia (with flow increase causing endothelium-dependent dilatation), and after sublingual administration of nitroglycerin (an endothelium-independent dilator). Flow-mediated dilatation was observed in all control subjects (8.2 +/- 3.1 percent; range, 2.1 to 16.7) but was significantly impaired in the passive smokers (3.1 +/- 2.7 percent; range, 0 to 9; P < 0.001 for the comparison with the controls) and in the active smokers (4.4 +/- 3.1 percent; range, 0 to 10; P < 0.001 for the comparison with the controls; P = 0.48 for the comparison with the passive smokers). In the passive smokers, there was an inverse relation between the intensity of exposure to tobacco smoke and flow-mediated dilatation (r = -0.67, P < 0.001). In contrast, dilatation induced by nitroglycerin was similar in all groups. Passive smoking is associated with dose-related impairment of endothelium-dependent dilatation in healthy young adults, suggesting early arterial damage.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                January 2007
                19 January 2007
                : 26
                : 6
                : 536-543
                Departments of aNephrology, bCardiology and cInternal Medicine, University Hospital of Heraklion,Crete, dIntensive Care Unit, General State Hospital of Athens, eRenal Transplantation Unit, Laiko University Hospital, Athens, and fDialysis Unit, General Hospital of Chios, Chios, Greece; gVascular Department, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                97816 Am J Nephrol 2006;26:536–543
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 50, Pages: 8
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/97816
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research


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