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      Silicon oxycarbide glass-graphene composite paper electrode for long-cycle lithium-ion batteries

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          Abstract

          Silicon and graphene are promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries because of their high theoretical capacity; however, low volumetric energy density, poor efficiency and instability in high loading electrodes limit their practical application. Here we report a large area (approximately 15 cm × 2.5 cm) self-standing anode material consisting of molecular precursor-derived silicon oxycarbide glass particles embedded in a chemically-modified reduced graphene oxide matrix. The porous reduced graphene oxide matrix serves as an effective electron conductor and current collector with a stable mechanical structure, and the amorphous silicon oxycarbide particles cycle lithium-ions with high Coulombic efficiency. The paper electrode (mass loading of 2 mg cm −2) delivers a charge capacity of ∼588 mAh g −1 electrode (∼393 mAh cm −3 electrode) at 1,020th cycle and shows no evidence of mechanical failure. Elimination of inactive ingredients such as metal current collector and polymeric binder reduces the total electrode weight and may provide the means to produce efficient lightweight batteries.

          Abstract

          Most high-loading silicon-based anodes for lithium-ion batteries suffer from low efficiency and volumetric capacity. Here, the authors show that a paper-like electrode of silicon oxycarbide glass and graphene at mass loading of >2 mg cm −2 can efficiently deliver high energy density for over 1,000 cycles.

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          Most cited references 54

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          Graphene anchored with co(3)o(4) nanoparticles as anode of lithium ion batteries with enhanced reversible capacity and cyclic performance.

          We report a facile strategy to synthesize the nanocomposite of Co(3)O(4) nanoparticles anchored on conducting graphene as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. The Co(3)O(4) nanoparticles obtained are 10-30 nm in size and homogeneously anchor on graphene sheets as spacers to keep the neighboring sheets separated. This Co(3)O(4)/graphene nanocomposite displays superior Li-battery performance with large reversible capacity, excellent cyclic performance, and good rate capability, highlighting the importance of the anchoring of nanoparticles on graphene sheets for maximum utilization of electrochemically active Co(3)O(4) nanoparticles and graphene for energy storage applications in high-performance lithium-ion batteries.
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            Self-assembled TiO2-graphene hybrid nanostructures for enhanced Li-ion insertion.

            We used anionic sulfate surfactants to assist the stabilization of graphene in aqueous solutions and facilitate the self-assembly of in situ grown nanocrystalline TiO2, rutile and anatase, with graphene. These nanostructured TiO2-graphene hybrid materials were used for investigation of Li-ion insertion properties. The hybrid materials showed significantly enhanced Li-ion insertion/extraction in TiO2. The specific capacity was more than doubled at high charge rates, as compared with the pure TiO2 phase. The improved capacity at high charge-discharge rate may be attributed to increased electrode conductivity in the presence of a percolated graphene network embedded into the metal oxide electrodes.
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              Enhanced cyclic performance and lithium storage capacity of SnO2/graphene nanoporous electrodes with three-dimensionally delaminated flexible structure.

              To fabricate nanoporous electrode materials with delaminated structure, the graphene nanosheets (GNS) in the ethylene glycol solution were reassembled in the presence of rutile SnO(2) nanoparticles. According to the TEM analysis, the graphene nanosheets are homogeneously distributed between the loosely packed SnO(2) nanoparticles in such a way that the nanoporous structure with a large amount of void spaces could be prepared. The obtained SnO(2)/GNS exhibits a reversible capacity of 810 mAh/g; furthermore, its cycling performance is drastically enhanced in comparison with that of the bare SnO(2) nanoparticle. After 30 cycles, the charge capacity of SnO(2)/GNS still remained 570 mAh/g, that is, about 70% retention of the reversible capacity, while the specific capacity of the bare SnO(2) nanoparticle on the first charge was 550 mAh/g, dropping rapidly to 60 mAh/g only after 15 cycles. The dimensional confinement of tin oxide nanoparticles by the surrounding GNS limits the volume expansion upon lithium insertion, and the developed pores between SnO(2) and GNS could be used as buffered spaces during charge/discharge, resulting in the superior cyclic performances.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nat Commun
                Nat Commun
                Nature Communications
                Nature Publishing Group
                2041-1723
                30 March 2016
                2016
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Kansas State University , 3002 Rathbone Hall, Kansas, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA
                Author notes
                Article
                ncomms10998
                10.1038/ncomms10998
                4820847
                27025781
                Copyright © 2016, Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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