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      In BPS1 Downregulated Roots, the BYPASS1 Signal Disrupts the Induction of Cortical Cell Divisions in Bean- Rhizobium Symbiosis

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          BYPASS1 ( BPS1), which is a well-conserved gene in plants, is required for normal root and shoot development. In the absence of BPS1 gene function, Arabidopsis overproduces a mobile signalling compound (the BPS1 signal) in roots, and this transmissible signal arrests shoot growth and causes abnormal root development. In addition to the shoot and root meristem activities, the legumes also possess transient meristematic activity in root cortical cells during Rhizobium symbiosis. We explored the role of Phaseolus vulgaris BPS1 during nodule primordium development using an RNA-interference (RNAi) silencing approach. Our results show that upon Rhizobium infection, the PvBPS1-RNAi transgenic roots failed to induce cortical cell divisions without affecting the rhizobia-induced root hair curling and infection thread formation. The transcript accumulation of early nodulin genes, cell cyclins, and cyclin-dependent kinase genes was affected in RNAi lines. Interestingly, the PvBPS1-RNAi root nodule phenotype was partially rescued by exogenous application of fluridone, a carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor, which was used because the carotenoids are precursors of BPS1 signalling molecules. Furthermore, we show that the PvBPS1 promoter was active in the nodule primordia. Together, our data show that PvBPS1 plays a vital role in the induction of meristematic activity in root cortical cells and in the establishment of nodule primordia during Phaseolus-Rhizobium symbiosis.

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          Most cited references 49

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          Assaying chimeric genes in plants: The GUS gene fusion system

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            Strigolactone inhibition of shoot branching.

            A carotenoid-derived hormonal signal that inhibits shoot branching in plants has long escaped identification. Strigolactones are compounds thought to be derived from carotenoids and are known to trigger the germination of parasitic plant seeds and stimulate symbiotic fungi. Here we present evidence that carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 8 shoot branching mutants of pea are strigolactone deficient and that strigolactone application restores the wild-type branching phenotype to ccd8 mutants. Moreover, we show that other branching mutants previously characterized as lacking a response to the branching inhibition signal also lack strigolactone response, and are not deficient in strigolactones. These responses are conserved in Arabidopsis. In agreement with the expected properties of the hormonal signal, exogenous strigolactone can be transported in shoots and act at low concentrations. We suggest that endogenous strigolactones or related compounds inhibit shoot branching in plants. Furthermore, ccd8 mutants demonstrate the diverse effects of strigolactones in shoot branching, mycorrhizal symbiosis and parasitic weed interaction.
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              The PIN auxin efflux facilitator network controls growth and patterning in Arabidopsis roots.

              Local accumulation of the plant growth regulator auxin mediates pattern formation in Arabidopsis roots and influences outgrowth and development of lateral root- and shoot-derived primordia. However, it has remained unclear how auxin can simultaneously regulate patterning and organ outgrowth and how its distribution is stabilized in a primordium-specific manner. Here we show that five PIN genes collectively control auxin distribution to regulate cell division and cell expansion in the primary root. Furthermore, the joint action of these genes has an important role in pattern formation by focusing the auxin maximum and restricting the expression domain of PLETHORA (PLT) genes, major determinants for root stem cell specification. In turn, PLT genes are required for PIN gene transcription to stabilize the auxin maximum at the distal root tip. Our data reveal an interaction network of auxin transport facilitators and root fate determinants that control patterning and growth of the root primordium.

                Author and article information

                Genes (Basel)
                Genes (Basel)
                03 January 2018
                January 2018
                : 9
                : 1
                [1 ]Ciencias Agrogenómicas, Escuela Nacional de Estudios Superiores Unidad León—Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), León C.P. 37684, Mexico; manojarthik@
                [2 ]Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan, Ciudad de México C.P. 04510, Mexico
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: kalpana.ccg@ (K.N.); mlara@ (M.L.); Tel.: +52-555-623-0252 (M.L.)

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (



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