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      An Oral Sorbent, AST-120, Increases Klotho Expression and Inhibits Cell Senescence in the Kidney of Uremic Rats

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          Abstract

          Background/Aim: Klotho, an anti-aging gene, is primarily expressed in the kidney, and its renal expression is decreased in chronic renal failure (CRF). We determined if administration of an oral sorbent, AST-120, increases the expression of Klotho, and inhibits cell senescence in the kidney of CRF rats. Methods: CRF rats were produced by 4/5-nephrectomy. AST-120 was administered to the CRF rats at a dose of 4 g/kg with powder chow for 16 weeks, whereas powder chow alone was administered to control CRF rats. The expression of Klotho and cell senescence (senescence-associated β-galactosidase: SA-β-gal) was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: The expression of Klotho was significantly decreased in the kidney of CRF rats as compared with normal rats. AST-120-treated CRF rats showed significantly increased renal expression of Klotho as compared with CRF rats. The expression of SA-β-gal was significantly increased in the kidney of CRF rats as compared with normal rats. AST-120-treated CRF rats showed significantly decreased expression of SA-β-gal in the kidney as compared with CRF rats. AST-120 significantly decreased serum and urine levels of indoxyl sulfate. Conclusions: AST-120 increased Klotho expression, and inhibited cell senescence in the kidney of CRF rats, probably by alleviating indoxyl sulfate overload on the kidney.

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          Severely reduced production of klotho in human chronic renal failure kidney.

          We recently identified a novel gene, termed klotho (kl) that is involved in the development of a syndrome in mice resembling human aging. A defect of the kl gene expression in mice leads to multiple disorders including arteriosclerosis, osteoporosis, ectopic calcification, and skin atrophy together with short life-span and infertility. Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), develop multiple complications that are reminiscent of phenotypes observed in kl mutant mice. Furthermore, the kl gene is mainly expressed in kidney and brain. These evidences above suggest the possible involvement of Klotho function in the complications arising in CRF patients. To investigate the above possibility, we examined the kidneys of 10 clinically or histologically diagnosed CRF cases. The level of kl gene expression was measured by utilizing RNase protection assay. The expression of Klotho protein was assayed by utilizing Western blot analysis and by immunohistochemistry. The levels of kl mRNA expression were greatly reduced in all CRF kidneys. Moreover, the production of Klotho protein was also severely reduced in all CRF kidneys. These results suggest that the decrease in kl gene expression in CRF patients may underlie the deteriorating process of multiple complications in the CRF patients. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
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            Expression of p16INK4a and other cell cycle regulator and senescence associated genes in aging human kidney.

            Somatic cells in vitro have a finite life expectancy before entering a state of senescence. If this state has an in vivo counterpart, it could contribute to organ aging. We have previously shown that human kidney cortex displays telomere shortening with age. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between renal age in humans and a number of phenomena associated with cellular senescence in vitro. Human kidney specimens were obtained at 8 weeks to 88 years of age and were assessed for changes related to aging. We found that human kidneys expressed relatively constant levels of mRNAs for genes potentially related to senescence. Among the candidate genes surveyed, the cell cycle regulator p16INK4a emerged with the strongest association with renal aging for both mRNA and protein expression. Proliferation as measured by Ki-67 expression was inversely correlated with p16INK4a expression, compatible with a role for p16INK4a as an irreversible cell cycle inhibitor. Cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2) mRNA expression was elevated in older kidneys, associated with increased protein expression. Comparison of gene expression with age-related histologic changes revealed that glomerulosclerosis correlated with p16INK4a and p53, whereas interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy were associated with p16INK4a, p53, COX-1, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), and heat shock protein A5 (HSPA5). We conclude that some changes observed in cellular senescence in vitro do occur in human kidney with age, particularly in the renal cortex, in some cases correlating with histologic features. P16INK4a emerged with the most consistent correlations with age and histologic changes and inversely correlated with cell replication.
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              Current understanding of klotho.

              Klotho is a new anti-aging gene. Genetic mutation of klotho causes multiple premature aging-like phenotypes and strikingly shortens lifespan. Overexpression of the klotho gene in mice suppresses aging and extends lifespan which may involve the mechanism of suppression of insulin signaling and oxidant stress. Klotho functions as a cofactor/coreceptor regulating fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 signaling. Klotho acts as a glucuronidase and activates ion channel TRPV5. Klotho protects against endothelial dysfunction and regulates the production of nitric oxide. Klotho also influences intracellular signaling pathways including p53/p21, cAMP, protein kinase C (PKC) and Wnt signaling pathways. The discovery of klotho has a great impact on aging research. The purpose of this review is to provide the recent progress and future directions of klotho research. Specifically, this review will cover: klotho and aging, structure and expression of the klotho gene, localization of klotho expression, source of circulating klotho, current understanding of klotho functions, and signaling pathways of klotho.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2010
                February 2010
                03 December 2009
                : 31
                : 2
                : 160-164
                Affiliations
                aClinical Preventive Medicine, and bDepartment of Advanced Medicine for Uremia, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan
                Article
                264634 Am J Nephrol 2010;31:160–164
                10.1159/000264634
                19955715
                df5d6ff4-43c0-4428-99d2-ee0c16d50d93
                © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 06 October 2009
                : 02 November 2009
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 24, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                AST-120,Chronic renal failure,Klotho,Cell senescence,Indoxyl sulfate

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