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      Central Precocious Puberty: Adult Height in Girls Treated with Quarterly or Monthly Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analog Triptorelin

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Treatment with quarterly gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs may improve compliance and optimize outcome in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP), but long-term comparative data between the new and the monthly formulations are very scarce. Methods: A group of girls with idiopathic CPP (n = 13; age 7.9 ± 0.6 years) were treated from the beginning with quarterly triptorelin (11.25 mg/90 days) and followed up to the achievement of adult height (AH). A group of girls with idiopathic CPP (n = 12; age 8.0 ± 0.6 years) treated with monthly triptorelin (3.75 mg/28 days) served as controls. Results: The AH (157.1 ± 4.9 cm) of girls treated with quarterly triptorelin was not significantly different from their mid-parental height (159.7 ± 3.8 cm) and significantly increased in comparison with predicted AH (average tables) at the beginning of GnRH analog therapy. The AH of girls treated with quarterly triptorelin was not significantly different in comparison with that of girls treated with the monthly formulation (158.1 ± 6.6 cm; mid-parental height 158.4 ± 5.0 cm). Conclusion: Treatment with quarterly triptorelin formulation permitted to achieve an AH adequate for mid-parental height in girls with CPP. Significant differences of AH between girls with CPP treated with quarterly or monthly formulations were not found.

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          Tables for predicting adult height from skeletal age: revised for use with the Greulich-Pyle hand standards.

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            Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of GnRH agonists: clinical implications in pediatrics.

            Since 1981, GnRH agonist administration has been the treatment of choice for central precocious puberty. Continuous administration of the agonist, instead of permanently stimulating gonadotropin secretion, deeply suppresses LH and FSH levels and induces a marked inhibition of gonadal activity and regression of clinical symptoms. This inhibitory effect is due both to specific kinetic parameters relative to natural GnRH, and to marked alterations of the biosynthetic pathways of gonadotropin subunits. The half disappearance time of infused agonists is 3-10 fold that of natural GnRH. This means that the residence time of GnRH agonists is significantly longer than that of GnRH. The resistance of agonist to enzymatic degradation, mainly due to the substitution of a hydrophobic D-amino acid for glycine 6, is one of the factors involved in the increased availability of GnRH superagonists. The paradoxical effects of GnRH superagonists are still incompletely understood. In children long-term treated with depot formulations of triptorelin or leuprorelin, alpha-subunit secretion is markedly increased, and remains sensitive to exogenous GnRH, which demonstrates that the gonadotrophs are not totally desensitized. Despite the sustained stimulation of a-subunit secretion, no deleterious side effects, either during therapy or during post-therapy follow-up, have been reported in children treated with GnRH agonists. It should be noted that alpha-subunit responsiveness to exogenous GnRH decreases progressively after several years of treatment, although it is never completely abolished. On the other hand, LH beta-subunit secretion is suppressed as evidenced by radioimmunoassay of LH beta-subunit in serum chromatographic fractions from children treated with triptorelin. This differential pattern of secretion parallels that of mRNA levels in rat pituitary after in vivo exposure to triptorelin. Both pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data can help diagnose the situations of resistance or escape. The lack of clinical effect of GnRH in the treatment of precocious puberty can be due to true resistance, or to an inappropriate injection schedule, or to abnormal metabolism. Measurement of serum alpha-subunit level, and, if needed, of serum agonist level, generally provides the answer.
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              Analysis of the factors affecting auxological response to GnRH agonist treatment and final height outcome in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty.

              The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the factors which affected the auxological response to GnRH agonist treatment and the final height (FH) outcome in 71 girls with idiopathic and truly precocious (onset before 8 years) central puberty (CTPP) who had been treated with the same therapy protocol (Decapeptyl Depot, 60 microg/kg i.m. every 28 days) for at least 2 years (since 7.0+/-1. 3 (S.D.) years of age) and followed until puberty was completed and FH was reached. During the entire treatment period we observed: (a) a decrease of height standard deviation scores (SDS) (from 1.5+/-1.7 to 0.9+/-1.3 SDS, P<0.01); (b) a striking deceleration of bone age (BA), revealed by the subnormal DeltaBA:Deltachronological age (CA) ratio (0.2+/-0.1); (c) an increase of predicted adult height (from 155.6+/-7.0 to 160.7+/-6.7 cm, P<0.0005). Treatment interruption was followed by an important catch-down growth, with an FH (158.4+/-5.8 cm) lower (P<0.025) than that predicted at the end of therapy. However, FH fell within the population norm and the target range in respectively 87.3 and 90% of the patients. The tallest FH was recorded in the patients who started therapy at less than 6 years of age and in those who discontinued treatment at a BA of 12.0--12.5 years. At stepwise regression analysis, FH in the whole study population was positively affected by the following independent factors: (a) height at the end of therapy (F=45.45, P<0.0001); (b) pretreatment height (F=13.91, P<0.0005); (c) treatment duration (F=8. 51, P<0.005); (d) target height (TH) (F=7.70, P<0.01). We conclude that: (i) most girls with idiopathic CTPP treated by GnRH agonists may achieve an adult height within the population norm and/or their target range; (ii) the height gain from therapy onset until FH attainment, however, is generally rather limited (on average 2.9 cm) and only few patients are able to reach their target percentile; (iii) the most favorable height prognosis with respect to TH is generally observed in the subjects with the tallest height at the end of treatment and the lowest BA2:CA2 ratio, due to the important deterioration of height prognosis which frequently follows therapy interruption; (iv) FH is also significantly conditioned by both TH and treatment duration; (v) in order to strengthen the weak therapeutic effect of GnRH agonists in CTPP this treatment should be started as early as possible and discontinued at a BA of 12.0--12.5 years.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRP
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2015
                December 2015
                04 November 2015
                : 84
                : 6
                : 396-400
                Affiliations
                aAdolescent Medicine Unit, Pediatric Division, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Pediatrics, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, and bDepartment of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, cPaediatric Endocrinology, Regina Margherita Children's Hospital, Turin, and dDepartment of Pediatrics, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
                Author notes
                *Silvano Bertelloni, MD, Dipartimento Materno-infantile, Ospedale Santa Chiara, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Via Roma 67, IT-56125 Pisa (Italy), E-Mail s.bertelloni@ao-pisa.toscana.it
                Article
                441497 Horm Res Paediatr 2015;84:396-400
                10.1159/000441497
                26528763
                df6714af-b990-4d2d-bc86-16c57194dbf3
                © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 06 July 2015
                : 05 October 2015
                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 27, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Endocrinology & Diabetes,Neurology,Nutrition & Dietetics,Sexual medicine,Internal medicine,Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                Monthly triptorelin,Central precocious puberty,Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog treatment,Quarterly triptorelin,Adult height

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