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      Prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Blastocystis, and other opportunistic infections in patients with primary and acquired immunodeficiency

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          Intestinal opportunistic infections are often caused by unicellular parasites. Individuals with decreased immunity are particularly susceptible to infection by said microorganisms, and when they are infected, diarrhea can be the main clinical manifestation. However, intestinal parasites have rarely been taken into account in intestinal disorders. In our study, an investigation was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal micro-pathogens, such as Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Blastocystis, and microsporidia, in hospitalized patients with different immunological statuses. The study at hand indicates that protozoan parasitic infections are rare among immunodeficient patients in Poland. The overall prevalence of micro-pathogens among participants was 4.6%; it was three times higher in adults (12.5%) than in children (2.3%). Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora species (Apicomplexa) were diagnosed as the main cause of heavy diarrhea. Accordingly, adult patients were positive mainly for Blastocystis and microsporidia, while children were more often infected with the Cryptosporidium species.

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          Most cited references 65

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          Cryptosporidium species in humans and animals: current understanding and research needs.

          Cryptosporidium is increasingly recognized as one of the major causes of moderate to severe diarrhoea in developing countries. With treatment options limited, control relies on knowledge of the biology and transmission of the members of the genus responsible for disease. Currently, 26 species are recognized as valid on the basis of morphological, biological and molecular data. Of the nearly 20 Cryptosporidium species and genotypes that have been reported in humans, Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum are responsible for the majority of infections. Livestock, particularly cattle, are one of the most important reservoirs of zoonotic infections. Domesticated and wild animals can each be infected with several Cryptosporidium species or genotypes that have only a narrow host range and therefore have no major public health significance. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing techniques will significantly improve our understanding of the taxonomy and transmission of Cryptosporidium species, and the investigation of outbreaks and monitoring of emerging and virulent subtypes. Important research gaps remain including a lack of subtyping tools for many Cryptosporidium species of public and veterinary health importance, and poor understanding of the genetic determinants of host specificity of Cryptosporidium species and impact of climate change on the transmission of Cryptosporidium.
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            Taxonomy and species delimitation in Cryptosporidium.

             Ronald Fayer (2010)
            Amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals serve as hosts for 19 species of Cryptosporidium. All 19 species have been confirmed by morphological, biological, and molecular data. Fish serve as hosts for three additional species, all of which lack supporting molecular data. In addition to the named species, gene sequence data from more than 40 isolates from various vertebrate hosts are reported in the scientific literature or are listed in GenBank. These isolates lack taxonomic status and are referred to as genotypes based on the host of origin. Undoubtedly, some will eventually be recognized as species. For them to receive taxonomic status sufficient morphological, biological, and molecular data are required and names must comply with the rules of the International Code for Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). Because the ICZN rules may be interpreted differently by persons proposing names, original names might be improperly assigned, original literature might be overlooked, or new scientific methods might be applicable to determining taxonomic status, the names of species and higher taxa are not immutable. The rapidly evolving taxonomic status of Cryptosporidium sp. reflects these considerations. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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              Unravelling Cryptosporidium and Giardia epidemiology.

              Molecular biology has provided insights into the taxonomy and epidemiology of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, which are major causes of protozoal diarrhoea in humans worldwide. For both genera, previously unrecognized differences in disease, symptomatology, zoonotic potential, risk factors and environmental contamination have been identified using molecular tools that are appropriate for species, genotype and subtype analysis. In this article, to improve understanding of the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis, we consider specific requirements for the development of more-effective molecular identification and genotyping systems that should be applicable to both clinical and environmental samples.

                Author and article information

                Parasitol Res
                Parasitol. Res
                Parasitology Research
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                26 June 2018
                26 June 2018
                : 117
                : 9
                : 2869-2879
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 1290, GRID grid.12847.38, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Biology, , University of Warsaw, ; Warsaw, Poland
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2232 2498, GRID grid.413923.e, Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Nutritional Disorders and Pediatrics, , Children’s Memorial Health Institute, ; Warsaw, Poland
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2205 7719, GRID grid.414852.e, Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Clinical Oncology, , Medical Center for Postgraduate Education, ; Warsaw, Poland
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2232 2498, GRID grid.413923.e, Immunology Clinic, , Children’s Memorial Health Institute, ; Warsaw, Poland
                [5 ]Department of Pediatry, Children’s Hospital, Otwock, Poland
                Author notes

                Section Editor: Kevin S.W. Tan

                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Funded by: Ministry of Science and Higher Education in Warsaw, Poland
                Award ID: N N404101036
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                Original Paper
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                © Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018


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