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      Individuals with restrictive eating disorders' experience of the introduction of calories on menus in England: An interpretative phenomenological analysis study

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          Cognitive behaviour therapy for eating disorders: a "transdiagnostic" theory and treatment.

          This paper is concerned with the psychopathological processes that account for the persistence of severe eating disorders. Two separate but interrelated lines of argument are developed. One is that the leading evidence-based theory of the maintenance of eating disorders, the cognitive behavioural theory of bulimia nervosa, should be extended in its focus to embrace four additional maintaining mechanisms. Specifically, we propose that in certain patients one or more of four additional maintaining processes interact with the core eating disorder maintaining mechanisms and that when this occurs it is an obstacle to change. The additional maintaining processes concern the influence of clinical perfectionism, core low self-esteem, mood intolerance and interpersonal difficulties. The second line of argument is that in the case of eating disorders shared, but distinctive, clinical features tend to be maintained by similar psychopathological processes. Accordingly, we suggest that common mechanisms are involved in the persistence of bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa and the atypical eating disorders. Together, these two lines of argument lead us to propose a new transdiagnostic theory of the maintenance of the full range of eating disorders, a theory which embraces a broader range of maintaining mechanisms than the current theory concerning bulimia nervosa. In the final sections of the paper we describe a transdiagnostic treatment derived from the new theory, and we consider in principle the broader relevance of transdiagnostic theories of maintenance.
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            Review of the burden of eating disorders: mortality, disability, costs, quality of life, and family burden

            Purpose of review To review the recent literature on the burden of eating disorders in terms of mortality, disability, quality of life, economic cost, and family burden, compared with people without an eating disorder. Recent findings Estimates are that yearly over 3.3 million healthy life years worldwide are lost because of eating disorders. In contrast to other mental disorders, in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa years lived with disability (YLDs) have increased. Despite treatment advances, mortality rates of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa remain very high: those who have received inpatient treatment for anorexia nervosa still have a more than five times increased mortality risk. Mortality risks for bulimia nervosa, and for anorexia nervosa treated outside the hospital, are lower but still about twice those of controls. In people with an eating disorder, quality of life is reduced, yearly healthcare costs are 48% higher than in the general population, the presence of mental health comorbidity is associated with 48% lower yearly earnings, the number of offspring is reduced, and risks for adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes are increased. Summary People with a current or former eating disorder are at risk of increased mortality, high YLD rates, a reduced quality of life, increased costs, and problems with childbearing.
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              Evaluating the contribution of interpretative phenomenological analysis

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                European Eating Disorders Review
                Euro Eating Disorders Rev
                Wiley
                1072-4133
                1099-0968
                July 05 2023
                Affiliations
                [1 ] School of Health in Social Sciences University of Edinburgh Edinburgh Scotland
                [2 ] NHS Lothian Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services Royal Edinburgh Hospital Edinburgh Scotland
                [3 ] School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language University of Edinburgh Edinburgh Scotland
                Article
                10.1002/erv.3007
                df85119f-c956-415e-a28e-52d955103924
                © 2023

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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