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      Phylogenetic analysis reveals a high level of speciation in the Paracoccidioides genus

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          Abstract

          Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic disease endemic to most of Latin America, with greatest impact in rural areas. The taxonomic status of one of the best studied Paracoccidioides isolates (Pb01) as P. brasiliensis remains unresolved due to its genomic differences from the other three previously described phylogenetic species (S1, PS2 and PS3; Carrero et al., 2008. Fungal Genet. Biol. 45, 605). Using the genealogic concordance method of phylogenetic species recognition (GCPSR) via maximum parsimony and Bayesian analysis, we identified a clade of 17 genotypically similar isolates, including Pb01, which are distinct from the S1/PS2/P3 clade. Consistent with GCPSR, this "Pb01-like" group can be considered a new phylogenetic species, since it is strongly supported by all independent and concatenated genealogies. "Pb01-like" species exhibit great sequence and morphological divergence from the S1/PS2/PS3 species clade, and we estimate that these groups last shared a common ancestor approximately 32 million years ago. In addition, recombination analysis revealed independent events inside both main groups suggesting reproductive isolation. Consequently, we recommend the formal description of the "Pb01-like" cluster as the new species Paracoccidioides lutzii, a tribute to Adolpho Lutz, discoverer of P. brasiliensis in 1908.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
          Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
          Elsevier BV
          10557903
          August 2009
          August 2009
          : 52
          : 2
          : 273-283
          Article
          10.1016/j.ympev.2009.04.005
          19376249
          © 2009

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